Direct renin inhibition improved insulin resistance and adipose tissue dysfunction in type 2 diabetic KK-A(y) mice
ABSTRACT The renin-angiotensin system affects insulin sensitivity mainly through the angiotensin II type 1 receptor. In this study, the effects of renin inhibition on insulin resistance and adipose tissue dysfunction were explored in type 2 diabetic KK-A(y) mice.
Male KK-A mice were treated with a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, administered subcutaneously at a dose of 50 mg/kg per day for 14 days using an osmotic minipump. This dose of aliskiren strongly inhibited plasma renin activity and lowered blood pressure about 17% in KK-A(y) mice. Aliskiren decreased body weight and plasma glucose level, and increased plasma insulin level in a fed condition. Aliskiren also lowered the plasma levels of cholesterol, fatty acids and triglycerides. In the oral glucose tolerant test, the plasma glucose elevation after glucose load was reduced by aliskiren, without a significant change in insulin level. Insulin tolerance test showed that aliskiren enhanced insulin's effect on plasma glucose. Aliskiren also reduced the epididymal adipose tissue mass by 25% and retroperitoneal adipose tissue mass by 35%. In adipose tissue, expression of the insulin receptor was not changed by aliskiren; however, expression of insulin receptor substrate-1, glucose transporter type 4, adiponectin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteindelta was increased by aliskiren. Moreover, NADPH oxidase activity and expression of inflammatory factors were reduced in adipose tissue. Aliskiren increased the pancreatic beta-cell area in KK-A(y) mice.
These results suggest that renin inhibition by aliskiren improved insulin resistance and adipose tissue dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice through an increase in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and adipocyte differentiation, and a reduction of oxidative stress.
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ABSTRACT: Objective. Although angiotensin II-mediated inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation are considered to be associated with the progression of diabetic nephropathy, these processes have not yet been sufficiently clarified. The objective of this study was to determine whether the correction of the abnormal renal expression of MMPs and its inhibitors (MMPs/TIMPs) and cytokines following the administration of aliskiren to KK-A (y) mice results in a renoprotective effect. Methods. KK-A (y) mice were divided into two groups, that is, untreated (saline) and treated (aliskiren) groups. Systolic BP, HbA1c levels, and the albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured. The renal expression of MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) was examined using real-time PCR and/or immunohistochemical staining. Renal MAPK and NF- κ B activity were also examined by Western blot analyses and ELISA, respectively. Results. Significant decreases in systolic BP and ACR levels were observed in treated KK-A (y) mice compared with the findings in untreated KK-A (y) mice. Furthermore, increases in MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (P)RR expression, in addition to MAPK and NF- κ B activity, were significantly attenuated by aliskiren administration. Conclusions. It appears that aliskiren improves albuminuria and renal fibrosis by regulating inflammation and the alteration of collagen synthesis and degradation.06/2013; 2013:519130. DOI:10.1155/2013/519130
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that aliskiren improves the metabolic phenotype in a genetic mouse model of the metabolic syndrome (the caveolin-1 (cav-1) knock out (KO) mouse). MATERIALS/METHODS: Eleven-week-old cav-1 KO and genetically matched wild-type (WT) mice were randomized to three treatment groups: placebo (n=8/group), amlodipine (6mg/kg/day, n=18/ group), and aliskiren (50mg/kg/day, n=18/ group). After three weeks of treatment, all treatment groups were assessed for several measures of insulin resistance (fasting insulin and glucose, HOMA-IR, and the response to an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (ipGTT)) as well as for triglyceride levels and the blood pressure response to treatment. RESULTS: Treatment with aliskiren did not affect the ipGTT response but significantly lowered the HOMA-IR and insulin levels in cav-1 KO mice. However, treatment with amlodipine significantly degraded the ipGTT response, as well as the HOMA-IR and insulin levels in the cav-1 KO mice. Aliskiren also significantly lowered triglyceride levels in the cav-1 KO but not in the WT mice. Moreover, aliskiren treatment had a significantly greater effect on blood pressure readings in the cav-1 KO vs. WT mice, and was marginally more effective than amlodipine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that aliskiren reduces insulin resistance as indicated by improved HOMA-IR in cav-1 KO mice whereas amlodipine treatment resulted in changes consistent with increased insulin resistance. In addition, aliskiren was substantially more effective in lowering blood pressure in the cav-1 KO mouse model than in WT mice and marginally more effective than amlodipine.Metabolism: clinical and experimental 09/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2012.07.013 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity, hypertension, obesity-related hypertension such as hypertension with diabetes are growing health problems. Obesity, hypertension and diabetes are important, independent risk factors for the onset and development of cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension in obesity is characterized by stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), elevated sympathetic activity, insulin resistance and selective leptin resistance. It is known that these characteristics, even in isolation, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease onset and progression. Therefore, pharmacological treatments should be selected based on favourable effects on insulin resistance, stimulated RAAS and sympathetic nervous systems.Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis, Prevention and Management of Type 2 Diabetes and its Complications, 08/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-597-6