Cycling and sports, but not walking, are associated with 10-year cardiovascular disease incidence: the MORGEN Study

Centre for Prevention and Health Services Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
European journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation: official journal of the European Society of Cardiology, Working Groups on Epidemiology & Prevention and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.69). 02/2011; 18(1):41-7. DOI: 10.1097/HJR.0b013e32833bfc87
Source: PubMed


Physical activity is inversely related to cardiovascular diseases. However, the type of activities that contribute most to these beneficial effects remain unclear. For this reason, we investigated self-reported leisure time physical activities in relation to fatal/nonfatal cardiovascular disease incidence.
The Dutch Monitoring Project on Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases Study, carried out between 1993 and 1997, is a prospective cohort study of over 23000 men and women aged 20–65 years from the general Dutch population.
From 1994 till 1997 physical activity was assessed with a questionnaire in 7451 men and 8991 women who were followed for an average of 9.8 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used adjusting for age, sex, other physical activities, smoking, alcohol consumption, and educational level.
Almost the entire study population (97%) was engaged in walking, about 75% in regular cycling, and about half the population in sports or gardening. Cycling [hazard ratio (HR): 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71–0.95] and sports (HR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.64–0.87) were both inversely related to cardiovascular disease incidence, whereas walking and gardening were not. For sports (P < 0.001), but not for cycling (P = 0.06), we found a dose - response relationship with respect to cardiovascular disease incidence. Engaging in both cycling and sports resulted in an even greater risk reduction (HR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.52–0.77).
In this relatively active population, types of activities of at least moderate intensity, such as cycling and sports were associated with lower CVD incidence, whereas activities of lower intensity, such as walking and gardening, were not.

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Available from: Wanda Wendel-Vos, Dec 24, 2013
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    • "For limitations of this research, walking and bicycling were not distinguished, which may induce confoundation in the health effect, because it is reported that health effects of walking and bicycling are not identical for their different intensities [28]. Traditional bicycling and electric bicycling were measured together as well. "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence of active transport (AT, defined as walking or bicycling for transport) and to explore the association between AT and health outcomes, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Jiangsu, China, where walking and bicycling are still the main modes of transport. In this study, 8400 community residents aged 18 or above were interviewed following a multistage random sampling method (100% response rate). Face-to-face questionnaire survey data, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical data from blood tests were collected. Results show that 49.6% of the subjects, as part of daily transport, actively traveled on average 5.3 days per week, 53.5 minutes per day, and 300.3 minutes per week. There was an inverse correlation between AT and some health outcomes: AT respondents had a higher prevalence of cholesterol disorder; AT respondents who actively travelled every day had a higher risk of diabetes, whilst AT respondents with shorter daily or weekly duration had a lower risk of obesity, central obesity, and cholesterol disorder. Moreover, AT influences more health aspects among urban residents than among rural residents. Findings of this study do not support the notion that AT is beneficial to population health. Further research is needed in determining the negative side effects of AT.
    Journal of Environmental and Public Health 04/2013; 2013(11):624194. DOI:10.1155/2013/624194
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    • "Physical activity was assessed by a validated questionnaire in respondents recruited between 1994 and 1997. For this subset, we calculated whether respondents practised cycling and sports with a metabolic equivalent score ≥4 (yes/no) [25]. Educational level was classified into three categories: low (intermediate secondary education or less), intermediate (intermediate vocational or higher secondary education) or high (higher vocational or university education). "
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    ABSTRACT: A positive parental history of myocardial infarction (MI) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, different definitions of parental history have been used. We evaluated the impact of parental gender and age of onset of MI on CVD incidence. Baseline data were collected between 1993 and 1997 in 10,524 respondents aged 40-65 years. CVD events were obtained from the National Hospital Discharge Register and Statistics Netherlands. We used proportional hazard models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for CVD incidence and adjusted for lifestyle and biological risk factors. At baseline, 36% had a parental history of MI. During 10-year follow-up, 914 CVD events occurred. The age and gender adjusted HR was 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.5) for those with a paternal MI, 1.5 (1.2-1.8) for those with a maternal MI and 1.6 (1.2-2.2) for those with both parents with an MI. With decreasing parental age of MI, HR increased from 1.2 (1.0-1.6) for age ≥70 years to 1.5 (1.2-1.8) for age <60 years for a paternal MI and from 1.1 (0.9-1.5) to 2.2 (1.6-3.0) for a maternal MI. The impact of having a mother with MI before age 60 significantly differed in women [(2.9 (1.8-4.6)] and men [1.5 (0.9-2.6)]. Adjustment only slightly influenced HRs for maternal MI. Respondents with a parental history of MI have an increased CVD incidence, in particular with parental onset of MI before age 70. A maternal history of MI before age 60 was the strongest predictor of CVD incidence.
    PLoS ONE 12/2011; 6(12):e28697. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0028697 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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