Article

Highly active antiretroviral treatment as prevention of HIV transmission: review of scientific evidence and update

Antiretroviral Treatment and HIV Care Unit, Department of HIV/AIDS, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Current opinion in HIV and AIDS (Impact Factor: 4.39). 07/2010; 5(4):298-304. DOI: 10.1097/COH.0b013e32833a6c32
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An estimated 33 million people are living with HIV and universal access remains a dream for millions of people. By the end of year 2008, four million people were on treatment; however, over five million needed treatment, and in 2007, there were 2.7 million new infections. Without significant improvement in prevention, we are unlikely to meet universal access targets including the growing demand for highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). This review examines HAART as a potential tool for preventing HIV transmission.
We discuss recent scientific evidence regarding the treatment and prevention gap, importance viral load and HIV transmission, HAART and HIV transmission, when to start, HIV counseling and testing, modeling results and next steps.
HAART has considerable treatment and prevention benefits and it needs to be considered as a key element of combination prevention. To explore HAART as an effective prevention strategy, we recommend further evaluation of human rights and ethical considerations, clarification of research priorities and exploration of feasibility and acceptability issues.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Brian Gerard Williams, Jul 04, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
185 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Researchers have been working hard for more than 20 years to develop safe and effective microbicides to empower women to better control their own sexual life and to protect themselves against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Microbicide classes include moderately specific macromolecular anionic polymers that block HIV and other STIs, and HIV specific drugs that inhibit viral entry and reverse transcription. Based on innovative nanotechnology design, we showed a novel water-soluble anionic carbosilane dendrimer (2G-S16) as a propitious molecule against HIV-infection. A state-of-the-art research was accomplished that focused on biomedical cutting-edge techniques such as in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity assays performed on female rabbit genital tracts, simulate in vitro model of vaginal epithelium in order to evaluate HIV transmission blockade through the monolayer, complete gene expression profiling experiment to study deregulated genes after 2G-S16 exposition, molecular dynamics simulation of 2G-S16 molecule against principal proteins of HIV particles and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine profile study. Therefore, a high-throughput study and detailed analysis of the results were achieved in this article. We provided promising outcomes to encourage 2G-S16 as a hopeful microbicide.
    Journal of Controlled Release 05/2012; 161(3):949-58. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.04.050 · 7.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only available vaccine for tuberculosis (TB). Although this vaccine is effective in controlling infantile TB, BCG-induced protective effects against pulmonary diseases in adults have not been clearly demonstrated. Recombinant BCG (rBCG) technology has been extensively applied to obtain more potent immunogenicity of this vaccine, and several candidate TB vaccines have currently reached human clinical trials. On the other hand, recent progress in the improvement of the BCG vector, such as the codon optimization strategy and combination with viral vector boost, allows us to utilize this bacterium in HIV vaccine development. In this paper, we review recent progress in rBCG-based vaccine studies that may have implications in the development of novel vaccines for controlling global infectious diseases in the near future.
    05/2011; 2011:574591. DOI:10.1155/2011/574591
  • Source