IL-33 reduces macrophage foam cell formation.
ABSTRACT The development of atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of arterial fibrotic plaques, has been shown to be reduced by IL-33 in vivo. However, whether IL-33 can directly affect macrophage foam cell formation, a key feature of atherosclerotic plaques, has not been determined. In this study, we investigated whether IL-33 reduces macrophage foam cell accumulation in vivo and if IL-33 reduces their formation in vitro using THP-1 and primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. In Apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice fed on a high fat diet, IL-33 treatment significantly reduced the accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques. IL-33 also reduced macrophage foam cell formation in vitro by decreasing acetylated and oxidized low-density lipoprotein uptake, reducing intracellular total and esterified cholesterol content and enhancing cholesterol efflux. These changes were associated with IL-33-mediated reduction in the expression of genes involved in modified low-density lipoprotein uptake, such as CD36, and simultaneous increase in genes involved in cholesterol efflux, including Apolipoprotein E, thereby providing a mechanism for such an action for this cytokine. IL-33 also decreased the expression of key genes implicated in cholesterol esterification and triglyceride storage, including Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 and Adipocyte differentiation-related protein. Furthermore, using bone marrow-derived macrophages from ST2(-/-) mice, we demonstrate that the IL-33 receptor, ST2, is integral to the action of IL-33 on macrophage foam cell formation. In conclusion, IL-33 has a protective role in atherosclerosis by reducing macrophage foam cell formation suggesting that IL-33 maybe a potential therapeutic agent against atherosclerosis.
Article: Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid regulate modified LDL uptake and macropinocytosis in human macrophages.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is evidence that long chain n-3 PUFA (such as from fish oils) provide atheroprotection through, in part, changes in macrophage function although it has not been fully determined whether these n-3 PUFA target cellular mechanisms that control macrophage foam cell formation. Therefore, we investigated whether the n-3 PUFA, EPA and DHA, modulate modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake by human macrophages. The uptake of fluorophore labeled acetylated LDL (AcLDL) and/or oxidized LDL (OxLDL) by THP-1 macrophages and primary human monocyte-derived macrophages were measured by flow cytometry following co-incubation with EPA or DHA in vitro. DHA inhibited both AcLDL and OxLDL uptake in human macrophages whilst EPA reduced AcLDL and increased OxLDL uptake. These effects were only partly explained by changes in the mRNA and protein expression of key scavenger receptors, such as CD36 and scavenger receptor-A, in these cells suggesting the involvement of a scavenger receptor-independent mechanism. EPA and DHA inhibited macropinocytosis, as measured by Lucifer Yellow uptake, in human macrophages and attenuated the expression of Syndecan-4, which has been implicated in the uptake of other modified forms of LDL. EPA and DHA reduced modified LDL uptake by human macrophages through a mechanism that is in part scavenger receptor-independent and may involve inhibition of macropinocytosis and Syndecan-4 expression. This suggests that both EPA and DHA are capable of regulating macrophage foam cell formation and adds to the evidence describing an atheroprotective role for n-3 PUFA, implicating them as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of clinical atherosclerosis.Lipids 08/2011; 46(11):1053-61. · 2.13 Impact Factor
Article: Toll/interleukin-1 receptor member ST2 exhibits higher soluble levels in type 2 diabetes, especially when accompanied with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Soluble ST2, a member of the of the Toll/IL-1 superfamily, is a novel biomarker with exceptional predictive value in heart failure and myocardial infarction- related mortality as well as in acute dyspneic states. Soluble ST2 is considered a decoy receptor of IL 33 that blocks the protective effects of the cytokine in atherosclerosis and cardiac remodeling. In the present study we investigated the differences in the levels of soluble ST2, BNP and hs-CRP between healthy controls and patients with type 2 diabetes with and without left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. A secondary aim was to investigate correlations between sST2 and other biomarkers of type 2 diabetes, such as HbA1c. 158 volunteers were recruited and underwent a complete Doppler-echocardiographic evaluation of both systolic & diastolic cardiac function. All subjects with ejection fraction<50% were excluded. The study population was divided in 4 groups as follows: A: 42 healthy controls, B: 18 subjects without diabetes with LVDD, C: 48 patients with type 2 diabetes without LVDD & D: 50 patients with type 2 diabetes & LVDD. ELISA technique was performed to measure sST2 levels. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis & Mann-Whitney test (continuous variables), chi squared & Fischer exact test (discrete variables), Spearman coefficient (univariate analysis) and step-wise backward method (multivariate analysis). Patients with type 2 diabetes with (p<0.001) or without LVDD (p=0.007) had higher serum ST2 levels compared to healthy controls, state found also for hs-CRP levels but not for the corresponding BNP levels (p=0.213 & p=0.207 respectively). Patients with type 2 diabetes & LVDD had higher serum ST2 in relation to diabetic patients without LVDD (p=0.001). In multivariate analysis HbA1c positively and independently correlated with sST2 levels in both groups of patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabetes exhibit higher sST2 levels compared to healthy controls. The presence of LVDD in patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with even higher sST2 levels. A significant correlation between glycemic control and sST2 levels was also revealed.Cardiovascular Diabetology 11/2011; 10:101. · 3.35 Impact Factor