Article

Determining UV inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by using cell culture and a mouse bioassay.

National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268, USA.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.95). 08/2010; 76(15):5140-7. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00153-10
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The effect of UV exposure on Toxoplasma gondii oocysts has not been completely defined for use in water disinfection. This study evaluated UV-irradiated oocysts by three assays: a SCID mouse bioassay, an in vitro T. gondii oocyst plaque (TOP) assay, and a quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) assay. The results from the animal bioassay show that 1- and 3-log(10) inactivation is achieved with 4 mJ/cm(2) UV and 10 mJ/cm(2) low-pressure UV, respectively. TOP assay results, but not RT-qPCR results, correlate well with bioassay results. In conclusion, a 3-log(10) inactivation of T. gondii oocysts is achieved by 10-mJ/cm(2) low-pressure UV, and the in vitro TOP assay is a promising alternative to the mouse bioassay.

Full-text

Available from: Swinburne A J Augustine, Apr 17, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
201 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Toxoplasma gondii imparts a considerable burden to public health. Human toxoplasmosis can be life-threatening in immunocompromised individuals, has been associated with psychiatric disorders, and can cause severe congenital pathologies, spontaneous abortion, or stillbirth. Environmental modes of transmission contributing to the incidence of human toxoplasmosis are poorly understood. We sought to examine National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for risk factors associated with T. gondii seroprevalence. Methods T. gondii serology results reported for Continuous NHANES survey years 1999–2004 and 2009–10 were examined. To explore associations with toxoplasmosis seropositivity, covariates of interest were selected a priori, including source and home treatment of tap water. Associations between potential risk factors and evidence of IgG antibodies against T. gondii were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Results Among 23,030 participants with available T. gondii serology across 8 years of continuous NHANES survey data (1999–2004; 2009–2010), persons born outside the United States were significantly more likely to be seropositive, and seropositivity was inversely associated with years spent in the United States. Among US-born participants, participants with homes on well water (both those who used at-home water treatment devices and those who did not), as well as participants with public/private company-provided tap water who did not use at-home water treatment devices, were significantly more likely to be seropositive compared to participants who used home treatment devices on tap water provided by a private or public water company. A comparative subpopulation analysis revealed age-adjusted seroprevalence among US-born persons 12-49 yrs old significantly declined to 6.6% (95% CI, 5.2-8.0) (P <0.0001) in 2009–10, compared to previously published reports for NHANES data from 1988–1994 (14.1%) and 1999–2004 (9.0%). Conclusions Data suggests that T. gondii infections continue to decline in the United States, but the overall infection rate remains substantial at nearly 7%. Despite the limitations in the Continuous NHANES cross-sectional survey, the association between well water use and T. gondii infection warrants further research.
    BMC Public Health 07/2014; 14(1):711. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-711 · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We validated a new method, based on luciferine/luciferase bioluminescence, for drug screening on promastigotes of different Leishmania species. Results obtained with this new, rapid, reproducible, and reliable method are in good accordance with results obtained by the conventional MTT assay. This bioluminescence assay has a lower detection limit.
    Journal of microbiological methods 09/2013; 95(3). DOI:10.1016/j.mimet.2013.09.006 · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Foodborne infections are of public health importance and deeply impact the global economy. Consumption of bivalve mollusks generates risk for humans because these filtering aquatic invertebrates often concentrate microbial pathogens from their environment. Among them, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma are major parasites of humans and animals that may retain their infectivity in raw or undercooked mollusks. This review aims to detail current and future tools and methods for ascertaining the load and potential infectivity of these parasites in marine bivalve mollusks, including sampling strategies, parasite extraction procedures, and their characterization by using microscopy and/or molecular techniques. Method standardization should lead to better risk assessment of mollusks as a source of these major environmental parasitic pathogens and to the development of safety regulations, similar to those existing for bacterial and viral pathogens encountered in the same mollusk species.
    Journal of food protection 09/2013; 76(9):1649-57. DOI:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-13-002 · 1.80 Impact Factor