Obesity increases the risk of chest wall pain from thoracic stereotactic body radiation therapy.
ABSTRACT Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is increasingly being used to treat thoracic tumors. We attempted here to identify dose-volume parameters that predict chest wall toxicity (pain and skin reactions) in patients receiving thoracic SBRT.
We screened a database of patients treated with SBRT between August 2004 and August 2008 to find patients with pulmonary tumors within 2.5 cm of the chest wall. All patients received a total dose of 50 Gy in four daily 12.5-Gy fractions. Toxicity was scored according to the NCI-CTCAE V3.0.
Of 360 patients in the database, 265 (268 tumors) had tumors within <2.5 cm of the chest wall; 104 (39%) developed skin toxicity (any grade); 14 (5%) developed acute pain (any grade), and 45 (17%) developed chronic pain (Grade 1 in 22 cases [49%] and Grade 2 or 3 in 23 cases [51%]). Both skin toxicity and chest wall pain were associated with the V30, or volume of the chest wall receiving 30 Gy. Body mass index (BMI) was also strongly associated with the development of chest pain: patients with BMI≥29 had almost twice the risk of chronic pain (p=0.03). Among patients with BMI>29, diabetes mellitus was a significant contributing factor to the development of chest pain.
Safe use of SBRT with 50 Gy in four fractions for lesions close to the chest wall requires consideration of the chest wall volume receiving 30 Gy and the patient's BMI and diabetic state.
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ABSTRACT: Background and purpose We report our outcomes for patients with NSCLC treated with SABR to 70 Gy in 10 fractions and propose indications for this regimen as well as new dose–volume constraints. Materials and methods Volumetric image-guided SABR was used to treat 82 patients with clinical challenging NSCLC, not suitable for 50 Gy in 4 fractions, to a final dose of 70 Gy in 10 fractions. Endpoints included overall survival (OS), toxicity, and disease control. Results At a median follow-up time of 21.1 months, 2-year OS and local control rates were 66.9% and 96.2%, respectively. The most common side effects were radiation pneumonitis (14.6% grade 2, 2.4% grade 3), followed by chest wall pain (4.9% grade 2, 1.2% grade 3). Multivariate analysis revealed chest wall V50 > 60 cm3 to be associated with chest wall pain. No patient developed brachial plexopathy. One patient with bronchial tree tumor invasion died of hemoptysis. Conclusions SABR with 70 Gy in 10 fractions appears to achieve excellent local control and acceptable toxicity for clinically challenging cases with improved tolerance of the chest wall and brachial plexus as compared with 50 Gy in 4 fractions. This regimen may not be suitable in patients with tumor invading critical central structures. More studies are needed to validate our conclusions.Radiotherapy and Oncology 08/2014; 112(2). DOI:10.1016/j.radonc.2014.07.010 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stereotactic body radiotherapy is the preferred treatment modality for patients with inoperable early stage lung cancer. Chest wall toxicity is a potentially dose limiting side effect and may include fractures or pain secondary to treatment. The pathophysiology of these symptoms is unclear although it is presumed that radiation may alter the bone’s normal tissue environment, affecting maintenance and remodeling. Chest wall pain is likely neuropathic secondary to injury to the intercostal nerves. Identifying patients with chest wall toxicity can be difficult due to the varying definitions of toxicity as well as heterogeneous contouring guidelines. Multiple studies have demonstrated a correlation between treatment factors and the incidence of chest wall toxicity. An increase in dose and treatment volume appear to be the most consistent radiation factors associated with toxicity. Patient factors such as body mass index, female gender, tumor location, and age have also been correlated with an increased likelihood of developing side effects. Management of chest wall toxicity is typically conservative using analgesic medications although surgical intervention may be required for displaced fractures. In this review, we examine the treatment, patient, and tumor factors predictive for chest wall toxicity and the implications for the treating physician.Cancer Treatment Reviews 09/2014; 40(10). DOI:10.1016/j.ctrv.2014.09.003 · 6.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To compare toxicity after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for "central" tumors-within 2 cm of the proximal bronchial tree or with planning tumor volume (PTV) touching mediastinum-versus noncentral ("peripheral") lung tumors. From November 2005 to January 2011, 229 tumors (110 central, 119 peripheral; T1-3N0M0 non-small-cell lung cancer and limited lung metastases) in 196 consecutive patients followed prospectively at a single institution received moderate-dose SBRT (48-60 Gy in 4-5 fractions [biologic effective dose=100-132 Gy, α/β=10]) using 4-dimensional planning, online image-guided radiation therapy, and institutional dose constraints. Clinical adverse events (AEs) were graded prospectively at clinical and radiographic follow-up using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Pulmonary function test (PFT) decline was graded as 2 (25%-49.9% decline), 3 (50.0%-74.9% decline), or 4 (≥75.0% decline). Central/peripheral location was assessed retrospectively on planning CT scans. Groups were compared after propensity score matching. Characteristics were compared with χ(2) and 2-tailed t tests, adverse events with χ(2) test-for-trend, and cumulative incidence using competing risks analysis (Gray's test). With 79 central and 79 peripheral tumors matched, no differences in AEs were observed after 17 months median follow-up. Two-year cumulative incidences of grade ≥2 pain, musculoskeletal, pulmonary, and skin AEs were 14%, 5%, 6%, and 10% (central) versus 19%, 10%, 10%, and 3% (peripheral), respectively (P=.31, .38, .70, and .09). Grade ≥2 cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and central nervous system AEs were rare (<1%). Two-year incidences of grade ≥2 clinical AEs (28% vs 25%, P=.79), grade ≥2 PFT decline (36% vs 34%, P=.94), grade ≥3 clinical AEs (3% vs 7%, P=.48), and grade ≥3 PFT decline (0 vs 10%, P=.11) were similar for central versus peripheral tumors, respectively. Pooled 2-year incidences of grades 4 and 5 AEs were <1% and 0%, respectively, in both the prematched and matched groups. Moderate-dose SBRT with these techniques yields a similarly safe toxicity profile for both central and peripheral lung tumors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 10/2014; 91(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.08.345 · 4.18 Impact Factor