Circulating leptin and inflammatory response in esophageal cancer, esophageal cancer-related cachexia-anorexia syndrome (CAS) and non-malignant CAS of the alimentary tract.
ABSTRACT We investigated the association between esophageal cancer and cachexia-anorexia syndrome (CAS) of the alimentary tract and leptin, an adipocytokine crucial for body weight regulation, a modulator of inflammatory/immune response, implication of which in cancer and CAS development remains debatable. Circulating leptin was measured in 135 esophageal cancer patients (51 non-cachectic and 84 cachectic) and 83 controls (63 non-cachectic and 20 cachectic) and referred to cancer stage, CAS, and inflammatory and nutritional indices. Leptin was down-regulated in cancer patients and cachectic controls as compared to non-cachectic controls, with more pronounced hypoleptinemia in advanced cancers. Leptin correlated directly with BMI, TNF-alpha, albumin, and hemoglobin and indirectly with IL-6, IL-8, and hsCRP. The correlations, except for hsCRP, were more pronounced in females. BMI alone (females) and BMI and hsCRP (males) were independent predictors of leptin explaining over 60% of its variability. Following adjustment for BMI and gender, cancer-related CAS but not cancer itself negatively affected leptin. Leptin and BMI were independently associated with cancer-related and non-malignant CAS with diagnostic accuracy of 93% in identifying subjects with CAS. Pro-inflammatory, angiogenic and mitogenic properties of leptin do not seem to be important for esophageal cancer development but hypoleptinemia, independently from co-occurring reduction of adiposity, appears to be strongly associated with esophageal cancer-related CAS and non-malignant CAS of the alimentary tract.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was the investigation of relationship between cachexia syndrome and serum resistin, adiponectin, and apelin in patients with gastroesophageal cancer (GEC). Material and Methods. Adipocytokines concentrations were measured in sera of 85 GEC patients and 60 healthy controls. They were also evaluated in tumor tissue and appropriate normal mucosa of 38 operated cancer patients. Results. Resistin and apelin concentrations were significantly higher in GEC patients than in the controls. The highest resistin levels were found in cachectic patients and in patients with distant metastasis. Serum adiponectin significantly decreased in GEC patients with regional and distant metastasis. Serum apelin was significantly higher in cachectic patients than in the controls. Apelin was positively correlated with hsCRP level. Resistin and apelin levels increased significantly in tumor tissues. Weak positive correlations between adipocytokines levels in serum and in tumor tissue were observed. Conclusions. Resistin is associated with cachexia and metastasis processes of GEC. Reduction of serum adiponectin reflects adipose tissue wasting in relation to GEC progression. Correlation of apelin with hsCRP can reflect a presumable role of apelin in systemic inflammatory response in esophageal and gastric cancer.Disease markers. 01/2014; 2014:619649.
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ABSTRACT: Cachexia is characterized by anorexia, weakness, weight loss, and muscle wasting. Anorexia and muscle wasting are the key features of cachexia and they affect mortality, morbidity, and quality of life. Consistent studies have found that feeding-regulating peptides such as melanocortin, ghrelin, and leptin are related to muscle metabolism, and the balance of catabolism and anabolism in muscle is regulated in the hypothalamus, which also regulates appetite and energy expenditure. In cachexia, proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and Angiotensin II induce muscle atrophy. The mechanism is suggested via upregulation of MuRF1 and MAFbx. In contrast, the orexigenic peptide, AgRP and ghrelin have the effect to decrease proinflammatory cytokines and increase body weight, food intake, and muscle mass. The understandings of the pathological mechanism of anorexia and muscle metabolism in view of the crosstalk between brain and muscle will open the new way for the management of cachexia. In this review, we describe recent experimental and clinical studies that have examined the regulation of food intake and muscle wasting in cachexia.The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 07/2013; · 4.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) usually emerges as a set of signs and symptoms that alone or combination with standard treatment may lead to malnutrition and weight loss. Methods. This study evaluated patients with SCCHN prior to day 0 and 30 days after the end of treatment, with/ without tumor resection. Each individual patient was submitted to analyses of body composition and resting metabolic rate, as well as assessment of serum glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 β, and insulin sensitivity. Results. There was body mass loss during treatment and significant reduction in body fat and free fat mass. Early nutritional monitoring and tumor resection prior to treatment led to a better nutritional status and reduced inflammatory state. Conclusion. Early nutritional monitoring and resection of the tumor by surgery may be important factors for patients to tolerate treatment better. Head Neck, 2013.Head & Neck 12/2013; · 2.83 Impact Factor