A candidate gene study of obstructive sleep apnea in European Americans and African Americans.
ABSTRACT Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is hypothesized to be influenced by genes within pathways involved with obesity, craniofacial development, inflammation, and ventilatory control.
We conducted the first candidate gene study of OSA using family data from European Americans and African Americans, selecting biologically plausible genes from within these pathways.
A total of 1,080 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 729 African Americans and 505 SNPs were genotyped in 694 European Americans. Coding for SNPs additively, association testing on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) as a continuous trait, and OSA as a dichotomous trait (AHI ≥15) was conducted using methods that account for familial correlations in models adjusted for age, age-squared, and sex, with and without body mass index.
In European Americans, variants within C-reactive protein (CRP) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were associated with AHI (CRP: β = 4.6; SE = 1.1; P = 0.0000402) (GDNF: β = 4.3; SE = 1; P = 0.0000201) and with the dichotomous OSA trait (CRP: odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.9; P = 0.000170) (GDNF: odds ratio = 2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-2.89; P = 0.0000433). In African Americans, rs9526240 within serotonin receptor 2a (HTR2A: odds ratio = 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.9; P = 0.00005233) was associated with OSA.
This candidate gene analysis identified the potential role of genes operating through intermediate disease pathways to influence sleep apnea phenotypes, providing a framework for focusing future replication studies.
Article: Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308) gene polymorphism in obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) have elevated circulating levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. The hypothesis in this study was that OSAHS might be associated with the TNF-alpha (-308A) gene polymorphism, which results in increased TNF-alpha production. This hypothesis was examined in OSAHS patients, their siblings and population controls. A total of 206 subjects were recruited. All underwent sleep studies and clinical review, and were subsequently classified as having OSAHS or not depending on apnoea-hypopnoea frequency, sex, age and symptoms. All subjects had blood collected and genotyping was performed on DNA extracted from peripheral leukocytes. Some 192 random UK blood donors were used as population controls. The results demonstrated a significant association for TNF-alpha (-308A) allele carriage with OSAHS (OR=1.8; 95% Confidence interval: 1.18-2.75) when compared with population controls. Siblings with OSAHS were significantly more likely to carry the TNF-alpha (-308A) allele. In addition, 21 pairs of male siblings discordant for carriage of the -308A allele showed a significant level of discordance for the OSAHS phenotype. In conclusion, this study demonstrates an association of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308A) carriage with obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome, suggesting that inflammation may be implicated in the pathogenesis of this condition.European Respiratory Journal 11/2005; 26(4):673-8. · 5.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common, chronic, complex disease associated with serious cardiovascular and neuropsychological sequelae and with substantial social and economic costs. Along with male gender, obesity is the most characteristic feature of OSA in adults. To identify susceptibility loci for OSA, we undertook a 9-cM genome scan in 66 white pedigrees (n=349 subjects) ascertained on the basis of either an affected individual with laboratory-confirmed OSA or a proband who was a neighborhood control individual. Multipoint variance-component linkage analysis was performed for the OSA-associated quantitative phenotypes apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and body mass index (BMI). Candidate regions on chromosomes 1p (LOD score 1.39), 2p (LOD score 1.64), 12p (LOD score 1.43), and 19p (LOD score 1.40) gave the most evidence for linkage to AHI. BMI was also linked to multiple regions, most significantly to markers on chromosomes 2p (LOD score 3.08), 7p (LOD score 2.53), and 12p (LOD score 3.41). Extended modeling indicated that the evidence for linkage to AHI was effectively removed after adjustment for BMI, with the exception of the candidate regions on chromosomes 2p (adjusted LOD score 1.33) and 19p (adjusted LOD score 1.45). After adjustment for AHI, the primary linkages to BMI remained suggestive but were roughly halved. Our results suggest that there are both shared and unshared genetic factors underlying susceptibility to OSA and obesity and that the interrelationship of OSA and obesity in white individuals may be partially explained by a common causal pathway involving one or more genes regulating both AHI and BMI levels.The American Journal of Human Genetics 03/2003; 72(2):340-50. · 10.60 Impact Factor