Human fibroblasts support the expansion of IL-17-producing T cells via up-regulation of IL-23 production by dendritic cells.
ABSTRACT The initiation of immune responses is associated with the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) and their migration to draining lymph nodes. En route activated DCs encounter cells of the tissue microenvironment, such as fibroblasts. Because we have shown that DCs interact with fibroblasts during immune responses, we studied the impact of skin fibroblasts on human monocyte-derived DC function and subsequent human T-cell (TC) differentiation. We show that fibroblasts support interleukin-23 (IL-23) secretion from DCs preactivated by lipopolysaccharide (DC(act)) compared with lipopolysaccharide-activated DCs alone. The underlying complex feedback-loop mechanism involves IL-1β/tumor necrosis factor-α (from DC(act)), which stimulate fibroblasts prostaglandin E(2) production. Prostaglandin E(2), in turn, acts on DC(act) and increases their IL-23 release. Furthermore, fibroblast-stimulated DC(act) are far superior to DC(act) alone, in promoting the expansion of Th17 cells in a Cox-2-, IL-23-dependent manner. Using CD4(+)CD45RO(+) memory TCs and CD4(+)CD45RA(+) naive TCs, we showed that fibroblasts induce a phenotype of DC(act) that promotes the expansion of Th17 cells. Moreover, in psoriasis, a prototypic immune response in which the importance of IL-23/Th17 is known, high expression of Cox-2 in fibroblasts was observed. In conclusion, skin fibroblasts are involved in regulation of IL-23 production in DCs and, as a result, of Th17 expansion.
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ABSTRACT: Mast cells (MCs) mature locally, thus possessing tissue-dependent phenotypes for their critical roles in both protective immunity against pathogens and the development of allergy or inflammation. We previously reported that MCs highly express P2X7, a receptor for extracellular ATP, in the colon but not in the skin. The ATP-P2X7 pathway induces MC activation and consequently exacerbates the inflammation. Here, we identified the mechanisms by which P2X7 expression on MCs is reduced by fibroblasts in the skin, but not in the other tissues. The retinoic-acid-degrading enzyme Cyp26b1 is highly expressed in skin fibroblasts, and its inhibition resulted in the upregulation of P2X7 on MCs. We also noted the increased expression of P2X7 on skin MCs and consequent P2X7- and MC-dependent dermatitis (so-called retinoid dermatitis) in the presence of excessive amounts of retinoic acid. These results demonstrate a unique skin-barrier homeostatic network operating through Cyp26b1-mediated inhibition of ATP-dependent MC activation by fibroblasts.Immunity 04/2014; · 19.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Airway inflammation is an important characteristic of asthma and has been associated with airway remodelling and bronchial hyperreactivity. The mucosal microenvironment composed of structural cells and highly specialised extracellular matrix is able to amplify and promote inflammation. This microenvironment leads to the development and maintenance of a specific adaptive response characterized by Th2 and Th17. Bronchial fibroblasts produce multiple mediators that may play a role in maintaining and amplifying this response in asthma. To investigate the role of bronchial fibroblasts obtained from asthmatic subjects and healthy controls in regulating Th17 response by creating a local micro-environment that promotes this response in the airways. Human bronchial fibroblasts and CD4(+)T cells were isolated from atopic asthmatics and non-atopic healthy controls. CD4(+)T were co-cultured with bronchial fibroblasts of asthmatic subjects and healthy controls. RORc gene expression was detected by qPCR. Phosphorylated STAT-3 and RORγt were evaluated by western blots. Th17 phenotype was measured by flow cytometry. IL-22, IL17, IL-6 TGF-β and IL1-β were assessed by qPCR and ELISA. Co-culture of CD4(+)T cells with bronchial fibroblasts significantly stimulated RORc expression and induced a significant increase in Th17 cells as characterized by the percentage of IL-17(+)/CCR6(+) staining in asthmatic conditions. IL-17 and IL-22 were increased in both normal and asthmatic conditions with a significantly higher amount in asthmatics compared to controls. IL-6, IL-1β, TGF-β and IL-23 were significantly elevated in fibroblasts from asthmatic subjects upon co-culture with CD4(+)T cells. IL-23 stimulates IL-6 and IL-1β expression by bronchial fibroblasts. Interaction between bronchial fibroblasts and T cells seems to promote specifically Th17 cells profile in asthma. These results suggest that cellular interaction particularly between T cells and fibroblasts may play a pivotal role in the regulation of the inflammatory response in asthma.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e81983. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated whether gingival fibroblasts (GFs) can modulate the differentiation and/or maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and analyzed soluble factors that may be involved in this immune modulation. Experiments were performed using human monocytes in co-culture with human GFs in Transwell® chambers or using monocyte cultures treated with conditioned media (CM) from GFs of four donors. The four CM and supernatants from cell culture were assayed by ELISA for cytokines involved in the differentiation of dendritic cells, such as IL-6, VEGF, TGFβ1, IL-13 and IL-10. The maturation of monocyte-derived DCs induced by LPS in presence of CM was also studied. Cell surface phenotype markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. In co-cultures, GFs inhibited the differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs and the strength of this blockade correlated with the GF/monocyte ratio. Conditioned media from GFs showed similar effects, suggesting the involvement of soluble factors produced by GFs. This inhibition was associated with a lower stimulatory activity in MLR of DCs generated with GFs or its CM. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-6 and VEGF significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the inhibitory effect of CM on the differentiation of monocytes-derived DCs and in a dose dependent manner. Our data suggest that IL-6 is the main factor responsible for the inhibition of DCs differentiation mediated by GFs but that VEGF is also involved and constitutes an additional mechanism.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e70937. · 3.53 Impact Factor