Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in pediatric lung transplantation.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery (Impact Factor: 3.41). 08/2010; 140(2):427-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.04.012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Effectiveness of preoperative and postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in pediatric lung transplantation was studied.
Institutional database of pediatric lung transplants from 1990 to 2008 was reviewed.
Three hundred forty-four patients underwent lung transplants in the study period. Thirty-three of 344 patients (9.6%) required perioperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Fifteen patients (median, age 1.3 years; range, 0.2-18 years) required 16 pretransplant extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs. Indications were respiratory failure (8/16, 50%), severe pulmonary hypertension (5/16, 31%), and cardiopulmonary collapse (3/16, 19%). Four of these patients (27%) also required postoperative support. Six (40%) were weaned before lung transplant. Six (40%) survived to hospital discharge. Survival to discharge was higher among patients weaned before lung transplant (4/6, 66% vs 2/9, 22%). Twenty-two patients (median age, 9.4 years; range, 0.2-21 years) underwent 24 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs after lung transplant. Indications for postoperative support were primary graft dysfunction (18/24, 75%), pneumonia (4/24, 16%), and others (2/24, 9%). Median time between lung transplant and institution of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was 32 hours (range, 0-1084 hours); median duration of support was 141 hours (range, 48-505 hours). Five of these patients (23%) survived to hospital discharge. Among nonsurvivors, causes of death were intractable respiratory failure (12/17, 70%) and infectious complications (4/17, 24%).
Need for perioperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support is associated with significant morbidity and mortality among pediatric patients receiving lung transplants. A subset of patients who can be weaned from support preoperatively have greater likelihood of survival.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lung transplantation for infants and children is an accepted but rarely exercised option for the treatment of end-stage lung disease, with outcomes equivalent to those for adults. However, widespread misconceptions regarding pediatric outcomes often confound timely and appropriate referral to specialty centers. We present the updated information for primary pediatricians to utilize when counseling families with children confronted by progressive end-stage pulmonary or cardiovascular disease. We provide general guidelines to consider for referral, and discuss allocation of organs in children, information regarding standard treatment protocols, and survival outcomes. Lung transplantation is a worthwhile treatment option to consider in children with end-stage lung disease. The treatment is complex, but lung transplant provides substantial survival benefit and markedly improved quality of life for children and their families. This timely review provides comprehensive information for pediatricians who are considering options for treatment of children with end-stage lung disease.
    Current opinion in pediatrics 04/2014; · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly implemented in patients with end-stage pulmonary disease as a bridge to lung transplant. Several centers have instituted an approach that involves physical rehabilitation and ambulation for patients supported with ECMO. Recent reports describe the successful use of ambulatory ECMO in patients with chronic respiratory illnesses being bridged to lung transplant. We describe the first case of a previously healthy pediatric patient with acute respiratory failure successfully supported with ambulatory ECMO as a bridge to lung transplant after an unsuccessful bridge to recovery. Although there are challenges associated with awake and ambulatory ECMO in children, this strategy represents an exciting breakthrough and a potential paradigm shift in ECMO management for pediatric acute respiratory failure.
    Pediatrics 07/2014; · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • Yearbook of Critical Care Medicine 06/2013; 14(5S1):S51-61.