Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission after initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort analysis.

Statistical Center for HIV/AIDS Research and Prevention and the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 39.21). 06/2010; 375(9731):2092-8. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60705-2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT High plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces plasma HIV-1 concentrations. We aimed to assess the effect of ART use by patients infected with HIV-1 on risk of transmission to their uninfected partners.
Participants in our prospective cohort analysis were from a randomised placebo-controlled trial that enrolled heterosexual African adults who were seropositive for both HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2, and their HIV-1 seronegative partners. At enrolment, HIV-1 infected participants had CD4 counts of 250 cells per microL or greater and did not meet national guidelines for ART initiation; during 24 months of follow-up, CD4 counts were measured every 6 months and ART was initiated in accordance with national guidelines. Uninfected partners were tested for HIV-1 every 3 months. The primary outcome was genetically-linked HIV-1 transmission within the study partnership. We assessed rates of HIV-1 transmission by ART status of infected participants.
3381 couples were eligible for analysis. 349 (10%) participants with HIV-1 initiated ART during the study, at a median CD4 cell count of 198 (IQR 161-265) cells per microL. Only one of 103 genetically-linked HIV-1 transmissions was from an infected participant who had started ART, corresponding to transmission rates of 0.37 (95% CI 0.09-2.04) per 100 person-years in those who had initiated treatment and 2.24 (1.84-2.72) per 100 person-years in those who had not-a 92% reduction (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.08, 95% CI 0.00-0.57, p=0.004). In participants not on ART, the highest HIV-1 transmission rate (8.79 per 100 person-years) was from those with CD4 cell counts lower than 200 cells per microL. In couples in whom the untreated HIV-1 infected partner had a CD4 cell count greater than 200 cells per microL, 66 (70%) of 94 transmissions occurred when plasma HIV-1 concentrations exceeded 50 000 copies per mL.
Low CD4 cell counts and high plasma HIV-1 concentrations might guide use of ART to achieve an HIV-1 prevention benefit. Provision of ART to HIV-1 infected patients could be an effective strategy to achieve population-level reductions in HIV-1 transmission.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; US National Institutes of Health.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) allows for appropriately timed interventions with improved outcomes, but HIV screening among asymptomatic persons and the general population in Singapore remains low. In 2008, Singapore's Ministry of Health implemented HIV voluntary opt-out screening (VOS) for hospitalised adults. We evaluated the outcome of VOS and surveyed reasons for its low uptake in our institution. We assessed the outcomes of the VOS programme from January 2010 to December 2013 at National University Hospital, a 1081-bed tertiary hospital in Singapore. We also examined reasons for opting-in and opting-out using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire in a representative sample in January 2013. 107,523 patients fulfilled VOS criteria and were offered HIV screening, of which 5215 (4.9%) agreed to testing. 4850 (93.1%) of those who opted-in had an HIV test done. Three (0.06%) tested positive for HIV. 238 patients (14.2%) were surveyed regarding reasons for opting-in or out of VOS. 21 (8.8%) had opted-in. Patients who opted-in were likely to be younger, more educated and reported having more regular sexual partners. Type of housing, number of casual sexual partners, sexual orientation, intravenous drug use, condom use and previous sexually transmitted infection were not associated with deciding to opt-in/out. Patients' most common reasons for opting-out were: belief that they were at low risk (50.2%), belief that they were too old (26.8%), cost (6.9%) and aversion to venepuncture (6.5%). The most common reason for opting-in was desire to know their HIV status (47.6%). The success of an HIV-VOS program is largely determined by test uptake. Our study showed that the majority of eligible VOS patients opted-out of HIV screening. Given the considerable cost and low yield of this programme, more needs to be done to better equip patients in self-risk assessment and opting in to testing.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0116987. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116987 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Persons with unsuppressed HIV viral load (VL) who disengage from care may experience poor clinical outcomes and potentially transmit HIV. We assessed the feasibility and yield of using the San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH) enhanced HIV surveillance system (eHARS) to identify and re-engage such persons in care. Using SFDPH eHARS data as of 4/20/2012 (index date), we selected HIV-infected adults who were alive, had no reported VL or CD4 cell count results in the past nine months (proxy for "out-of-care") and a VL >200 copies/mL drawn nine to 15 months earlier. We prioritized cases residing locally for investigation, and used information from eHARS and medical and public health databases to contact them for interview and referral to the SFDPH linkage services (LINCS). Twelve months later, we matched-back to eHARS data to assess how HIV laboratory reporting delays affected original eligibility, and if persons had any HIV laboratory results performed and reported within 12 months after index date ('new labs'). Among 434 eligible persons, 282 were prioritized for investigation, of whom 75 (27%) were interviewed, 79 (28%) could not be located, and 48 (17%) were located out of the area. Among the interviewed, 54 (72%) persons accepted referral to LINCS. Upon match-back to eHARS data, 324 (75%) in total were confirmed as eligible, including 221 (78%) of the investigated; most had new labs. Among the investigated persons presumed out-of-care, we interviewed and offered LINCS referral to about one-quarter, demonstrating the feasibility but limited yield of our project. Matching to updated surveillance data revealed that a substantial minority did not disengage from care and that most re-engaged in HIV care. Verifying persons' HIV care status with medical providers and improving timeliness of transfer and cross-jurisdictional sharing of HIV laboratory data may aid future efforts.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(3):e0118923. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118923 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) utilization remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries, particularly in remote rural settings. We sought to identify factors associated with service awareness and service uptake of VCT among female heads of household in rural Zambézia Province of north-central Mozambique which is characterized by high HIV prevalence (12.6%), poverty, and suboptimal health service access and utilization. Our population-based survey of female heads of household was administered to a representative two-stage cluster sample using a sampling frame created for use on all national surveys and based on census results. The data served as a baseline measure for the Ogumaniha project initiated in 2009. Survey domains included poverty, health, education, income, HIV stigma, health service access, and empowerment. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to describe service awareness and service uptake of VCT. Of 3708 women surveyed, 2546 (69%) were unaware of available VCT services. Among 1162 women who were aware of VCT, 673 (58%) reported no prior testing. In the VCT aware group, VCT awareness was associated with higher education (aOR = 2.88; 95% CI = 1.61, 5.16), higher income (aOR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.86), higher numeracy (aOR = 1.05, CI 1.03, 1.08), more children < age 5 in the home (aOR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.18), closer proximity to a health facility (aOR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.07), and mobile phone ownership (aOR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.84) (all p-values < 0.04). Having a higher HIV-associated stigma score was the factor most strongly associated with being less likely to test. (aOR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.23, 0.71; p<0.001). Most women were unaware of available VCT services. Even women who were aware of services were unlikely to have been tested. Expanded VCT and social marketing of VCT are needed in rural Mozambique with special attention to issues of community-level stigma reduction.
    BMC Public Health 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-1388-z · 2.32 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 27, 2014