The epidemiology of extraintestinal non-typhoid Salmonella in Israel: the effects of patients' age and sex.
ABSTRACT Extraintestinal disease occurs in 5-8% of non-typhoid Salmonella enterica (NTS) infections and is more likely to be associated with hospitalization and death. The study examined the epidemiology of extraintestinal NTS infections in Israel and the possible effects of patients' age and sex. NTS isolates passively submitted to the National Salmonella Reference Center during 1996-2006 were the source for the study cohort. Poisson regression models were used to assess incidence trends over the study years and to evaluate the effects of patients' age and sex on the incidence of extraintestinal NTS manifestations. A total of 36,822 stool and 1,415 (3.7%) patient-unique NTS isolates from blood (74.1%), urine (18.3%), and other sources (3.7%) were studied. Serotypes Enteritidis, Virchow, and Typhimurium accounted for 66.3% of the isolates. Analysis showed a highly significant quadratic (U-shaped) relationship between patients' age and the incidence of extraintestinal isolation (p < 0.001), with increasing risk in the two extremes of age. Differences between the incidence of blood and urine sources were significant in patients <10 and >or=60 years old (relative risk [RR] = 5.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.36-10.30, p < 0.001 and RR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.09-2.53, p = 0.017, respectively). Males >or=60 years of age were more likely than females of the same age to have bacteremia (RR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.39-2.61, p > 0.001) and less likely to have urinary NTS isolation (RR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.28-0.89, p = 0.018). Serotype Virchow had the highest incidence in patients <10 years of age, while serotype Enteritidis had the highest incidence in patients >or=60 years old. The study revealed a complex effect of patients' age and sex on the epidemiology of extraintestinal NTS manifestations.
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ABSTRACT: Salmonella species are a group of Gram-negative enterobacteria and known human pathogens in developing as well as industrialized countries. Despite significant advances in sanitation, provision of potable water, and highly controlled food chain surveillance, transmission of Salmonella spp. continues to affect communities, preferentially children, worldwide. This review summarizes updated concepts on typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella infections, starting with a historical perspective that implicates typhoid Salmonella as a significant human pathogen since ancient times. We describe the epidemiology of this pathogen with emphasis on the most recent non-typhoidal Salmonella outbreaks in industrialized countries and continued outbreaks of typhoid Salmonella in underserved countries. An overview of clinical aspects of typhoid and non-typhoid infections in developing and industrialized countries, respectively, is provided, followed by a description on current treatment concepts and challenges treating multidrug-resistant Salmonella infections. We conclude with prevention recommendations, and recent research studies on vaccine prevention.Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease 11/2011; 9(6):263-77. DOI:10.1016/j.tmaid.2011.11.001
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ABSTRACT: Salmonella Chester infection has rarely been reported in the literature. In 2010, 33 case patients were reported in 2 months in four Canadian provinces. We conducted an outbreak investigation in collaboration with public health agencies, food safety specialists, regulatory agencies, grocery store chains, and the product distributor. We used case patient interviews, customer loyalty cards, and microbiological testing of clinical and food samples to identify nationally distributed head cheese as the food vehicle responsible for the outbreak. The rare serotype, a limited affected demographic group, and an uncommon exposure led to the rapid identification of the source. Control measures were implemented within 9 days of notification of the outbreak.Journal of food protection 04/2012; 75(4):738-42. DOI:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-408
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ABSTRACT: Few published studies have explored the clinical manifestations of nontyphoid salmonellosis in children <2 years of age. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical manifestations, microbiological features, complications, fecal excretion time, and responses to treatment in children <2 years of age with nontyphoid salmonellosis. Between January 2005 and December 2009, pediatric patients who were admitted to Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital with positive cultures for nontyphoid Salmonella were enrolled. The following data were recorded: demographic, clinical, and microbiological features, underlying diseases, treatment regimen, complications, responses to treatment, and fecal excretion time. The clinical manifestations were compared between patients <2 years of age and patients >2 years of age. Of a total 279 enrolled patients, 179 were >2 years of age. Compared with the patients who were ≥2 years of age, patients <2 years of age demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of bloody stool, mixed infection, extraintestinal infection, longer course of antibiotics, longer course of diarrhea after admission, and more days spent in the hospital. The rates of insusceptibility of nontyphoid Salmonella to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, and ciprofloxacin in patients <2 years of age were 37.87%, 29.09%, 23.73%, 3.26%, and 2.25%, respectively. Younger patients were generally more susceptible to antibiotics than patients ≥2 years of age, although this result was not statistically significant. The clinical manifestations of nontyphoid salmonellosis are more severe in younger children <2 years of age than older children. Local susceptibility patterns could serve as a guide for the prescription of antibiotics by clinicians.Pediatrics & Neonatology 06/2012; 53(3):193-8. DOI:10.1016/j.pedneo.2012.04.007