The epidemiology of extraintestinal non-typhoid Salmonella in Israel: the effects of patients' age and sex.
ABSTRACT Extraintestinal disease occurs in 5-8% of non-typhoid Salmonella enterica (NTS) infections and is more likely to be associated with hospitalization and death. The study examined the epidemiology of extraintestinal NTS infections in Israel and the possible effects of patients' age and sex. NTS isolates passively submitted to the National Salmonella Reference Center during 1996-2006 were the source for the study cohort. Poisson regression models were used to assess incidence trends over the study years and to evaluate the effects of patients' age and sex on the incidence of extraintestinal NTS manifestations. A total of 36,822 stool and 1,415 (3.7%) patient-unique NTS isolates from blood (74.1%), urine (18.3%), and other sources (3.7%) were studied. Serotypes Enteritidis, Virchow, and Typhimurium accounted for 66.3% of the isolates. Analysis showed a highly significant quadratic (U-shaped) relationship between patients' age and the incidence of extraintestinal isolation (p < 0.001), with increasing risk in the two extremes of age. Differences between the incidence of blood and urine sources were significant in patients <10 and >or=60 years old (relative risk [RR] = 5.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.36-10.30, p < 0.001 and RR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.09-2.53, p = 0.017, respectively). Males >or=60 years of age were more likely than females of the same age to have bacteremia (RR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.39-2.61, p > 0.001) and less likely to have urinary NTS isolation (RR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.28-0.89, p = 0.018). Serotype Virchow had the highest incidence in patients <10 years of age, while serotype Enteritidis had the highest incidence in patients >or=60 years old. The study revealed a complex effect of patients' age and sex on the epidemiology of extraintestinal NTS manifestations.
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ABSTRACT: Nontyphoid Salmonella (NTS) isolates lead to not only self-limited, acute gastrointestinal infections, but also bacteraemia with or without extraintestinal focal infections (EFIs). The risk factors associated with EFIs in adults with NTS bacteraemia were not clearly elucidated. In a medical center in southern Taiwan, patients aged > or = 18 years with NTS bacteraemia between January 1999 and June 2005 were included for analysis. Of 129 patients, 51 (39.5%) were complicated with EFIs. The most common EFI was mycotic aneurysm, followed by pleuropulmonary infections and spinal osteomyelitis. Compared to patients with primary bacteraemia, those with EFIs had higher leucocyte counts (P = 0.004) and higher serum levels of C-reactive protein (P < 0.0001). The development of EFIs was associated with a higher mortality, more severe septic manifestations, longer hospital stays and duration of antimicrobial therapy. Univariate analysis revealed that diabetes mellitus (P = 0.02), hypertension (P = 0.02) and chronic lung disease (P = 0.006) were significantly associated with EFIs. However, patients with malignancy (P = 0.01) and immunosuppressive therapy (P = 0.03) were less likely to develop EFIs. On the basis of multivariate analysis, an independent factor for the occurrence of EFIs was age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.07; P < 0.0001], whilst malignancy was negatively associated with EFIs (aOR 0.16; 95% CI 0.14-0.78; P = 0.01). Amongst patients with NTS bacteraemia, EFIs often occurred in the aged, and were associated with a higher mortality and morbidity. Recognition of specific host factors is essential for identification of EFIs which often demand early surgical interventions and prolonged antimicrobial therapy.Journal of Internal Medicine 02/2007; 261(1):91-100. · 6.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infections (UTI) occur frequently in postmenopausal women and account for substantial morbidity and economic costs. Although extensively studied in younger women and older, debilitated women, the risk factors for UTI among healthy community-dwelling postmenopausal women have not been well described. We conducted a population-based, case-control study of women aged between 55 and 75 years enrolled in a large, staff-model health maintenance organization. Cases were identified using computerized laboratory and outpatient records. Controls were randomly selected from the plan's enrollment files. We interviewed subjects regarding their habits, general health, and potential risk factors for UTI. We interviewed 899 study subjects and 911 controls. Sociodemographic characteristics were similar in subjects and controls. Most women were insured and white. Like younger women, postmenopausal women with current UTI were more likely to be sexually active (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.87) and have a history of UTI (OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 3.25-5.42). Like older debilitated women, study subjects were more likely to have diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.78-4.35) and to be incontinent (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.03-1.78). Oral estrogen replacement did not reduce UTI risk. In this population, the risk factors of healthy community-dwelling postmenopausal women reflect the health status of women as they transition toward old age. Sexual activity, history of UTI, treated diabetes, and incontinence were all associated with a higher risk of UTI. The therapeutic role of oral estrogen remains uncertain. Prospective studies in different patient populations are needed to better understand the risk factors of UTI.Archives of Internal Medicine 06/2004; 164(9):989-93. · 11.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: While salmonellosis is often considered to affect primarily the gastrointestinal tract, infection at other sites may occur, producing characteristic clinical syndromes. We reviewed cases from our institutions and the literature on focal manifestations of salmonella infections. In the past, most extra-intestinal salmonella infections were caused by S. choleraesuis; however, we found S. typhimurium to be the predominant serotype. The mortality rate for patients in our series was considerably lower than the rate described for focal infections in other reviews. This may in part be due to lower proportion of infections due to S. choleraesuis, improved microbiologic and diagnostic techniques, increased use of ampicillin, and improved surgical techniques. Salmonella endocarditis usually occurs in patients with preexisting heart disease. Unlike other salmonella infections, S. choleraesuis is the most frequent serotype. Salmonella endocarditis is often very destructive, with a fatality rate of 70%. Nonvalvular (mural) endocarditis occurs in one-fourth of patients and survival has not been reported. While antibiotic therapy should be tried initially, if response is not prompt the clinician should look for an associated site of infection (intra- or extra-cardiac abscess), which will often require surgery. Salmonella pericarditis often presents with cardiac or pulmonary symptoms, but typical signs of pericardial disease (pulsus paradoxus, friction rub) or characteristic electrocardiographic changes (low voltage, elevated ST segments) are uncommon. Early diagnosis, before infection involves other areas of the heart, is crucial for survival. In addition to antibiotic therapy, pericardiocentesis or pericardiectomy is required. Salmonella may infect the peripheral or visceral arteries, but the abdominal aorta is the most frequent site of vascular infection. Most patients are men over age 50 with preexisting atherosclerosis of the aorta who do not have a previous history of gastroenteritis. About one-fourth of patients have associated lumbar osteomyelitis. No patients have been reported to survive with medical therapy alone. Specific guidelines for surgical removal of infected aneurysms have been proposed and these (in addition to increased use of ampicillin) may be responsible for higher survival rates in recent years. Due to the high incidence of relapses, postoperative blood cultures should be done routinely. Arterial infection should be considered in any elderly patient with salmonella bacteremia especially with prolonged fever or bacteremia after an "adequate course" of antibiotic therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)Medicine 10/1987; 66(5):349-88. · 4.23 Impact Factor