Curcumin improves early functional results after experimental spinal cord injury
ABSTRACT Curcumin is a polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and well known as a multifunctional drug with anti-oxidative, anticancerous, and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the effects of the use of the curcumin and the methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) functionally, biochemically, and pathologically after experimental spinal cord injury (SCI).
Forty rats were randomly allocated into five groups. Group 1 was performed only laminectomy. Group 2 was introduced 70-g closing force aneurysm clip injury. Group 3 was given 30 mg/kg MPSS intraperitoneally immediately after the trauma. Group 4 was given 200 mg/kg of curcumin immediately after the trauma. Group 5 was the vehicle, and immediately after trauma, 1 mL of rice bran oil was injected. The animals were examined by inclined plane score and Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale 24 h after the trauma. At the end of the experiment, spinal cord tissue samples were harvested to analyze tissue concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and catalase (CAT) activity and pathological evaluation.
Curcumin treatment improved neurologic outcome, which was supported by decreased level of tissue MDA and increased levels of tissue GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT activity. Light microscopy results also showed preservation of tissue structure in the treatment group.
This study showed the neuroprotective effects of curcumin on experimental SCI model. By increasing tissue levels of GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT, curcumin seems to reduce the effects of injury to the spinal cord, which may be beneficial for neuronal survival.
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ABSTRACT: Curcumin, a yellow pigment extracted from Carcuma longa, has been demonstrated to have extensive pharmacological activity in various studies, and it exhibits protective effects on injuries involving a number of human organs. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential effect and underlying mechanism of curcumin on the motor function and spinal cord edema in a rat acute spinal cord injury (SCI) model. The SCI model was induced by a heavy object falling. At 30 min after the SCI was successfully induced, the animals were intraperitoneally given 40 mg/kg curcumin. The Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores showed that curcumin moderately improved the recovery of the motor function in the injured rats, and hematoxylin–eosin staining demonstrated the role of this compound in reducing the hemorrhage, edema and neutrophil infiltration of the traumatic spinal cord. Furthermore, curcumin also inhibited the SCI-associated aquaporin – 4 (AQP4) overexpression and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and repressed the unusual activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that curcumin exhibits a moderately protective effect on spinal cord injury, and this effect might be related to the inhibition of overexpressed AQP4 and GFAP and the activated JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Curcumin may have potential for use as a therapeutic option for spinal cord injuries.Acta Histochemica 09/2014; 116(8). DOI:10.1016/j.acthis.2014.08.004 · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition affecting young, healthy individuals worldwide. Existing agents have inadequate therapeutic efficacy, and some are associated with side effects. Our objective is to summarize and critically assess the neurological recovery and antioxidant effects of curcumin for treatment of SCI in rat models. PUBMED, EMBASE and Chinese databases were searched from their inception date to February 2014. Two reviewers independently selected animal studies that evaluated neurological recovery and antioxidant effects of curcumin compared with placebo in rats with SCI, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. A pairwise analysis and a network meta-analysis were performed. Eight studies with adequate randomization were selected and included in the systematic review. Two studies had a higher methodological quality. Overall, curcumin appears to significantly improve neurological function, as assessed using Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale (4 studies, n=132, pooled MD=3.09, 95% CI=3.40 to 4.45, P=0.04), in a random effects model and decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) using a fixed effects model (4 studies, n=56, pooled MD=-1.00, 95% CI=-1.59 to -0.42, P=0.00008). The effect size, assessed using the BBB scale, increased gradually with increasing curcumin dosage. The difference between low-dose and high-dose curcumin using the BBB scale was statistically significant. Neurological recovery and antioxidant effects of curcumin were observed in rats with SCI despite poor study methodological quality. An assessment of the methodological quality of animal model SCI studies is required, and good methodological quality should be valued in systematic reviews of animal studies. Key words: systematic review; network meta-analysis; spinal cord injury; curcumin.Journal of Neurotrauma 08/2014; 32(6). DOI:10.1089/neu.2014.3520 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors have been shown to participate in nerve cell injury during spinal cord ischemia. This study observed a protective effect of curcumin on ischemic spinal cord injury. Models of spinal cord ischemia were established by ligating the lumbar artery from the left renal artery to the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta. At 24 hours after model establishment, the rats were intraperitoneally injected with curcumin. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical results demonstrated that after spinal cord ischemia, inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mRNA and protein expression significantly increased. However, curcumin significantly decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mRNA and protein expression in the ischemic spinal cord. Tarlov scale results showed that curcumin significantly improved motor function of the rat hind limb after spinal cord ischemia. The results demonstrate that curcumin exerts a neuroprotective fect against ischemic spinal cord injury by decreasing inducible nitric oxide synthase and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression.Neural Regeneration Research 12/2013; 8(36):3391-400. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2013.36.004 · 0.23 Impact Factor