Curcumin improves early functional results after experimental spinal cord injury
ABSTRACT Curcumin is a polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and well known as a multifunctional drug with anti-oxidative, anticancerous, and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the effects of the use of the curcumin and the methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) functionally, biochemically, and pathologically after experimental spinal cord injury (SCI).
Forty rats were randomly allocated into five groups. Group 1 was performed only laminectomy. Group 2 was introduced 70-g closing force aneurysm clip injury. Group 3 was given 30 mg/kg MPSS intraperitoneally immediately after the trauma. Group 4 was given 200 mg/kg of curcumin immediately after the trauma. Group 5 was the vehicle, and immediately after trauma, 1 mL of rice bran oil was injected. The animals were examined by inclined plane score and Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale 24 h after the trauma. At the end of the experiment, spinal cord tissue samples were harvested to analyze tissue concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and catalase (CAT) activity and pathological evaluation.
Curcumin treatment improved neurologic outcome, which was supported by decreased level of tissue MDA and increased levels of tissue GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT activity. Light microscopy results also showed preservation of tissue structure in the treatment group.
This study showed the neuroprotective effects of curcumin on experimental SCI model. By increasing tissue levels of GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT, curcumin seems to reduce the effects of injury to the spinal cord, which may be beneficial for neuronal survival.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Aged garlic extract (AGE) is a potent antioxidant agent with an established neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia. However, the potential protective effect of AGE in spinal cord injury (SCI) is still unknown. METHODS Spinal cord trauma was applied to 19 adult male Wistar rats using the clip compression method. Animals were divided into three groups. Animals in the AGE group were administered 250 mg/kg per day of AGE diluted in tap water orally by gavage for 15 days prior to trauma. After spinal cord trauma, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels of the AGE group were compared with the animals in the control and SCI groups. The animals were examined by inclined plane 24 hours (h) after the trauma. At the end of the experiment, spinal cord tissue samples were harvested for pathological evaluation. RESULTS Regarding tissue MDA and SOD levels after trauma, animals in the AGE group demonstrated decreased MDA levels and increased SOD levels when compared with the SCI group. However, these results were no better than in the control group. The AGE group demonstrated better pathological findings than the SCI group. The result regarding the functional finding was similar. CONCLUSION AGE demonstrated neuroprotective effects in SCI. Further studies with different experimental settings are required to achieve conclusive results.Ulusal travma ve acil cerrahi dergisi = Turkish journal of trauma & emergency surgery: TJTES 11/2012; 18(6):463-468. DOI:10.5505/tjtes.2012.84829 · 0.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound extracted from the plant turmeric, has protective effects on spinal cord injury (SCI) through attenuation of inflammatory response. This study was designed to detect whether curcumin modulates toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inflammatory signaling pathway in the injured rat spinal cord following SCI. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to laminectomy at T8-T9 and compression with a vascular clip. There were three groups: (a) sham group; (b) SCI group; and (g) SCI + curcumin group. We measured TLR4 gene and protein expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis; NF-κB activity by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hindlimb locomotion function by Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan rating, spinal cord edema by wet/dry weight method, and apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis. Results The results showed that SCI induced the up-regulation of TLR4, NF-κB, and inflammatory cytokines in the injured rat spinal cord. Treatment with curcumin following SCI markedly down-regulated the levels of these agents related to the TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway. Administration of curcumin also significantly ameliorated SCI induced hind limb locomotion deficits, spinal cord edema, and apoptosis. Conclusions Post-SCI curcumin administration attenuates the TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway in the injured spinal cord, and this may be a mechanism whereby curcumin improves the outcome following SCI.The journal of spinal cord medicine 01/2014; 38(2). DOI:10.1179/2045772313Y.0000000179 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition affecting young, healthy individuals worldwide. Existing agents have inadequate therapeutic efficacy, and some are associated with side effects. Our objective is to summarize and critically assess the neurological recovery and antioxidant effects of curcumin for treatment of SCI in rat models. PUBMED, EMBASE and Chinese databases were searched from their inception date to February 2014. Two reviewers independently selected animal studies that evaluated neurological recovery and antioxidant effects of curcumin compared with placebo in rats with SCI, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. A pairwise analysis and a network meta-analysis were performed. Eight studies with adequate randomization were selected and included in the systematic review. Two studies had a higher methodological quality. Overall, curcumin appears to significantly improve neurological function, as assessed using Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale (4 studies, n=132, pooled MD=3.09, 95% CI=3.40 to 4.45, P=0.04), in a random effects model and decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) using a fixed effects model (4 studies, n=56, pooled MD=-1.00, 95% CI=-1.59 to -0.42, P=0.00008). The effect size, assessed using the BBB scale, increased gradually with increasing curcumin dosage. The difference between low-dose and high-dose curcumin using the BBB scale was statistically significant. Neurological recovery and antioxidant effects of curcumin were observed in rats with SCI despite poor study methodological quality. An assessment of the methodological quality of animal model SCI studies is required, and good methodological quality should be valued in systematic reviews of animal studies. Key words: systematic review; network meta-analysis; spinal cord injury; curcumin.Journal of Neurotrauma 08/2014; 32(6). DOI:10.1089/neu.2014.3520 · 3.97 Impact Factor