Voltammetric behaviour of biological macromolecules at arrays of aqueous|organogel micro-interfaces.
ABSTRACT The behaviour of two biological macromolecules, bovine pancreatic insulin and hen-egg-white lysozyme (HEWL), at aqueous-organogel interfaces confined within an array of solid-state membrane micropores was investigated via cyclic voltammetry (CV). The behaviour observed is discussed in terms of possible charge transferring species and mass transport in the interfacial reaction. Comparison of CV results for HEWL, insulin, and the well-characterised model ion tetraethylammonium cation (TEA(+)) revealed that the biomacromolecules undergo an interfacial reaction comprising biomacromolecular adsorption and facilitated transfer of electrolyte anions from the organic phase to a protein layer on the aqueous side of the interface, whereas TEA(+) undergoes a simple ion transfer process. Evidence for biomacromolecular adsorption on the aqueous side of the micro-interfaces is provided by comparison of the CVs for TEA(+) ion transfer in the presence and absence of the biomacromolecules. Similar experiments in the presence of the low generation polypropylenimine tetraamine dendrimer, (DAB-AM-4), a smaller synthetic molecule, revealed it to be non-adsorbing. The behaviour of biological macromolecules at miniaturised aqueous-organogel interfaces involves adsorption on the aqueous side of the interface and transfer of organic phase electrolyte anions across the interface to associate with the adsorbed biomacromolecule. The data presented support the previously suggested mechanism for biomacromolecular voltammetry at liquid-liquid interfaces, involving adsorption and facilitated ion-transfer of organic electrolyte anions.
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ABSTRACT: Chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to study the transient behavior and the potentiometric response mechanism of the polymer membrane-based sensor for heparin. Membrane with a composition of 66 wt % poly(vinyl chloride), 33 wt % o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (plasticizer), and 0.05 M tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (ion exchanger) was deposited on the surface of a silver or a glassy carbon (GC) electrode. In the latter case, the membrane contained also 0.1 M 1,1'-dimethylferrocene/1,1'-dimethylferricenium+ couple ensuring the electronic contact between the membrane and GC. The sensor was dipped in an aqueous solution of 0.1 M LiCl, which was stirred with a magnetic stirrer (2-18.2 Hz), and eventually spiked with heparin (0.05-5 U mL-1). Chronopotentiometric measurements were carried out using either the Ag supported membrane with a thickness>100 microm or the GC supported membrane with a defined thickness of 2-30 microm, which was also used in impedance measurements. Remarkable features of the potentiometric response include the linear dependence of the initial slope of the potential transient on the heparin concentration in the aqueous phase and on the square root of the stirring frequency, and the absence of the effect of the membrane thickness. Impedance measurements (0.1 Hz-10 kHz) made it possible to identify and to evaluate the geometric capacitance and the capacitance of the electric double layer at the membrane/solution interface, the bulk membrane and charge-transfer resistances, and the Warburg impedance of the chloride transport. Changes in the membrane bulk and charge-transfer resistances and the Warburg impedance upon spiking the aqueous solution with heparin were found to be consistent with the steady-state response of approximately -25 mV, indicating that the bulk chloride concentration in the membrane decreased to about half of its initial value. A novel theoretical model of the transient behavior was developed based on the balance of the charging and the faradic currents of chloride and heparin, in accordance with the ion-exchange mechanism that has been proposed previously. It was concluded that the initial slope of the potential transient is linked to the charging of the double layer coupled to the chloride ion transfer across the membrane/solution interface and to the diffusion-limited transport of heparin in the solution. The potentiometric assay of heparin could be based on measurements of the initial slope of the potential transient or the potential at a fixed time shortly after the heparin injection.Analytical Chemistry 04/2007; 79(7):2892-900. · 5.70 Impact Factor
- Analytical Chemistry 07/1996; 68(13):2287. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cyclic voltammetry is used to study the charge transfer reaction of the biopolymer heparin at the PVC plasticized 1,6-dichlorohexane membrane–solution interface. Several unique feature of the reaction are demonstrated including the apparent diffusion control and the specific interaction of heparin with the cation of the membrane phase, which probably acts as the heparin carrier (ionophore). Voltammetric behaviour corresponds to the interfacial transfer of a mixture of polyanions with a relatively high content of polyanions carrying a low charge. Amperometry appears to be a suitable method for the quantification of heparin in various preparations with the sensitivity of ca. 1 U mL−1 (S/N=3).Electrochemistry Communications. 01/2003;