A Large Study of Androgen Receptor Germline Variants and Their Relation to Sex Hormone Levels and Prostate Cancer Risk. Results from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium
Androgens are key regulators of prostate gland maintenance and prostate cancer growth, and androgen deprivation therapy has been the mainstay of treatment for advanced prostate cancer for many years. A long-standing hypothesis has been that inherited variation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene plays a role in prostate cancer initiation. However, studies to date have been inconclusive and often suffered from small sample sizes.
We investigated the association of AR sequence variants with circulating sex hormone levels and prostate cancer risk in 6058 prostate cancer cases and 6725 controls of Caucasian origin within the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. We genotyped a highly polymorphic CAG microsatellite in exon 1 and six haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms and tested each genetic variant for association with prostate cancer risk and with sex steroid levels.
We observed no association between AR genetic variants and prostate cancer risk. However, there was a strong association between longer CAG repeats and higher levels of testosterone (P = 4.73 x 10(-5)) and estradiol (P = 0.0002), although the amount of variance explained was small (0.4 and 0.7%, respectively).
This study is the largest to date investigating AR sequence variants, sex steroid levels, and prostate cancer risk. Although we observed no association between AR sequence variants and prostate cancer risk, our results support earlier findings of a relation between the number of CAG repeats and circulating levels of testosterone and estradiol.
"The most recognized repeat is a CAG triplet that begins at codon 58 with an average of 22 repeats. Recent studies do not support the association between CAG-repeat length and PCa risk or aggressiveness 4,5. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in the normal development of the prostate gland, in prostate carcinogenesis, and in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) to advanced metastatic disease. African American (AA) men with PCa present with higher tumor volume, more advanced tumor stage, and higher Gleason score. This could be in part related to the AR expression or activity in the prostate tissue of AA men, or to unique mutations or polymorphisms of the AR. In Caucasian Americans (CAs), AR mutations are rare or infrequent in organ-confined tumors, but occur at a higher rate in advanced, metastatic, or castrate-recurrent disease. In AAs, the prevalence, clinical, and biological significance of AR mutations in PCa are unknown. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of somatic and germline AR mutations in patients with primary PCa in AAs compared with CAs. Due to very limited data available on allelic distribution of E213 (G/A) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), we also assessed this in patients with sporadic PCa and in unrelated healthy individuals from both ethnic populations. Somatic missense AR mutations were detected at a higher rate in AAs (17 out of 200 cases) than in CAs (2 out of 100 cases). In AAs, the majority of these mutations (41.1%) were from Gleason 7 tumors, a small portion (23.5%) from Gleason 8 tumors, and the rest (35.2%) from Gleason 6 tumors. Analysis of genomic DNAs extracted from white blood cells of patients with sporadic PCa revealed that the rate of germline AR mutations were also higher (~4 times) in AAs than in CAs. With respect to E213 (G/A) SNP, the E213 A-allele expression was 5.85 times higher in healthy unrelated AA men than in CA men. However, in AAs with somatic AR mutation, the E213 G-allele distribution was almost equal to the A-allele. Silencing of one of the somatic AR mutations (i.e., 597 Ser>Gly) in a primary AA-PCa cell line (e.g., E006AA) revealed that similar AR mutation can be associated simultaneously with both "gain-of-function" phenotype (cell migration and invasion) and a "loss-of-function" phenotype (proliferation). Our data demonstrated a higher susceptibility for genetic alterations in the AR in the form of somatic mutations in sporadic PCa or in the form of germline mutations in AAs as compared with CAs. These data may support the idea that AR-specific hypermutator phenotype in combination with other genes, might serve as a contributing factor to ethnic differences in PCa and potentially different clinical outcome in AAs as a high-risk population.
International journal of biological sciences 06/2014; 10(6):643-51. DOI:10.7150/ijbs.8974 · 4.51 Impact Factor
"2. Androgen action is determined by cooperation of androgen and AR. Populations with a longer CAG repeat polymorphism of AR, which leads to higher plasma androgen levels to compensate for lower AR transactivity   , usually have more genetic polymorphisms leading to lower androgen concentration. These opposing genetic Androgen-associated ethnical differences and prostate cancer 138 Am J Cancer Res 2013;3(2):127-151 effects may also minimize the population disparity of androgen levels. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed male malignancy and the second biggest cause of cancer death in men of the Western world. Higher incidences of PCa occur in men from North America, Oceania and Western countries, whereas men from Asia and North Africa have a much lower PCa incidence rate. Investigations into this population disparity of PCa incidence, in order to identify potential preventive factors or targets for the therapeutic intervention of PCa, have found differences in both environmental and genetic variations between these populations. Environmental variations include both diet and lifestyle, which vary widely between populations. Evidence that diet comes into play has been shown by men who immigrate from Eastern to Western countries. PCa incidence in these men is higher than men in their native countries. However the number of immigrants developing PCa still doesn't match native black/white men, therefore genetic factors also contribute to PCa risk, which are supported by familial studies. There are a number of genetic polymorphisms that are differentially presented between Western and Eastern men, which are potentially associated with PCa incidence. Androgen and its receptor (AR) play a major role in PCa development and progression. In this study, we focus on genes involved in androgen biosynthesis and metabolism, as well as those associated with AR pathway, whose polymorphisms affect androgen level and biological or physiological functions of androgen. While many of the genetic polymorphisms in this androgen/AR system showed different frequencies between populations, contradictory evidences exist for most of these genes investigated individually as to the true contribution to PCa risk. More accurate measurements of androgen activity within the prostate are required and further studies need to include more African and Asian subjects. As many of these genetic polymorphisms may contribute to different steps in the same biological/physiological function of androgen and AR pathway, an integrated analysis considering the combined effect of all the genetic polymorphisms may be necessary to assess their contribution to PCa initiation and progression.
American Journal of Cancer Research 04/2013; 3(2):127-151. · 4.17 Impact Factor
"However, the factors responsible for shaping the frequency and distribution of AR CAGn, which varies in number between eight and thirty-seven repeats in healthy humans (Zitzmann et al. 2003; Lindstrom et al. 2010), and its potential role in unexplained heritability in those diseases have received little attention (but see Hannan 2010). Here, we suggest AR CAGn as a promising, paradigmatic candidate helping explain missing heritability in human disease mediated by androgen levels, and we propose and evaluate four potential models of selection acting on the AR CAG locus to maintain intermediate repeat frequency in human populations: balancing selection, sexual conflict, accumulation-selection , and antagonistic pleiotropy. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Variation in polyglutamine repeat number in the androgen receptor (AR CAGn) is negatively correlated with the transcription of androgen-responsive genes and is associated with susceptibility to an extensive list of human disease. Only a small portion of the heritability for many of these diseases is explained by conventional SNP-based genome-wide association studies, and the forces shaping AR CAGn among humans remains largely unexplored. Here, we propose evolutionary models for understanding selection at the AR CAG locus, namely balancing selection, sexual conflict, accumulation-selection, and antagonistic pleiotropy. We evaluate these models by examining AR CAGn-linked susceptibility to eight extensively studied diseases representing the diverse physiological roles of androgens, and consider the costs of these diseases by their frequency and fitness effects. Five diseases could contribute to the distribution of AR CAGn observed among contemporary human populations. With support for disease susceptibilities associated with long and short AR CAGn, balancing selection provides a useful model for studying selection at this locus. Gender-specific differences AR CAGn health effects also support this locus as a candidate for sexual conflict over repeat number. Accompanied by the accumulation of AR CAGn in humans, these models help explain the distribution of repeat number in contemporary human populations.
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