Inducing preschool children's emotional eating: relations with parental feeding practices.
ABSTRACT Children's emotional eating is related to greater body mass index and a less-healthy diet, but little is known about the early development of this behavior.
This study aimed to examine the relations between preschool children's emotional eating and parental feeding practices by using experimental manipulation of child mood and food intake in a laboratory setting.
Twenty-five 3-5-y-old children and their mothers sat together and ate a standard meal to satiety. Mothers completed questionnaires regarding their feeding practices. Children were assigned to a control or negative mood condition, and their consumption of snack foods in the absence of hunger was measured.
Children whose mothers often used food to regulate emotions ate more cookies in the absence of hunger than did children whose mothers used this feeding practice infrequently, regardless of condition. Children whose mothers often used food for emotion regulation purposes ate more chocolate in the experimental condition than in the control condition. The pattern was reversed for children of mothers who did not tend to use food for emotion regulation. There were no significant effects of maternal use of restriction, pressure to eat, and use of foods as a reward on children's snack food consumption. Conclusions: Children of mothers who use food for emotion regulation consume more sweet palatable foods in the absence of hunger than do children of mothers who use this feeding practice infrequently. Emotional overeating behavior may occur in the context of negative mood in children whose mothers use food for emotion regulation purposes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01122290.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine the relationships between parental feeding practices, diet quality, overweight, and obesity among low-socioeconomic status (LSES) preschoolers. Research Methods and Procedures: A cohort of preschool children (aged 5-6) and their mothers was recruited from November 2009 to December 2009. To overcome seasonal and personal variation in dietary intake, 3 replications of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and a parental Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) were obtained in person at baseline, 3 months from baseline, and 6 months from baseline. Anthropometric measurements were attained at preschool class on the same dates. Scores of the 12 factors of the CFPQ were calculated and related to dietary intake. Correlation coefficients between the mean energy and fat intake and CFPQ factors' scores were calculated. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc analyses was used to compare nutrient intake and anthropometric measures across CFPQ tertiles. Results: Preschoolers (n = 63), aged 64.4 ± 5.0 months (47% boys), were recruited. Unhealthy feeding practices including food as a reward for good behavior and food restriction for promoting health were associated with increased consumption of junk food, sweets, and snacks. Among healthy feeding practices, encouraging balance and food variety and healthy eating modeled by parents were associated with increased vegetable consumption and smaller waist circumference. Weight was negatively associated with factors that reflect parental pressure and food restriction for weight control. Conclusions: Our data showed that certain feeding practices relate to a higher diet quality and lower weight and waist circumference. These practices may be encouraged in order to improve diet quality and prevent overweight and obesity.Journal of the American College of Nutrition 07/2014; · 1.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Parents are important role models for their children's eating behaviours. This study aimed to further validate the recently developed Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM; Palfreyman, Haycraft & Meyer, 2012) by examining the relationships between maternal self-reports on the PARM with the modelling practices exhibited by these mothers during three family mealtime observations. Relationships between observed maternal modelling and maternal reports of children's eating behaviours were also explored. Seventeen mothers with children aged between 2 and 6 years were video recorded at home on three separate occasions whilst eating a meal with their child. Mothers also completed the PARM, the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and provided demographic information about themselves and their child. Findings provided validation for all three PARM subscales, which were positively associated with their observed counterparts on the observational coding scheme (PARM-O). The results also indicate that habituation to observations did not change the feeding behaviours displayed by mothers. In addition, observed maternal modelling was significantly related to children's food responsiveness (i.e., their interest in and desire for foods), enjoyment of food, and food fussiness. This study makes three important contributions to the literature. It provides construct validation for the PARM measure and provides further observational support for maternal modelling being related to lower levels of food fussiness and higher levels of food enjoyment in their children. These findings also suggest that maternal feeding behaviours remain consistent across repeated observations of family mealtimes, providing validation for previous research which has used single observations.Appetite 08/2014; · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives: While most “fetal programming” area focused on metabolic disease, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is also associated with a preference for less healthy food. Post-natal factors such as strained maternal–child interactions are equally related to obesogenic eating behaviors. We investigated if IUGR and the quality of the mother/child relationship affect emotional overeating in children. Subjects/Methods: Participants were 196 children from a prospective birth cohort (the MAVAN project). As part of the protocol at 4 years of age, mothers completed the Children Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and mother–child interactions were scored during a structured task (ATM) task, sex and IUGR on the emotional over-eating domain of the CEBQ. Results: There was a significant interaction of BWR vs. sex vs. ATM (P = .02), with no effects of IUGR, sex or ATM. The model was significant for girls with low ATM scores (B = −2.035, P = .014), but not for girls with high (P = 0.94) or boys with high (P = .27) or low (P = .19) ATM scores. Only in IUGR girls, 48 months emotional over-eating correlated with BMI at that age (r = 0.560, P = 0.013) and predicted BMI in the subsequent years (r = 0.654, P = 0.006 at 60 months and r = 0.750, P = 0.005 at 72 months). Conclusions: IUGR and exposure to a negative emotional atmosphere during maternal–child interactions predicted emotional overeating in girls but not in boys. The quality of mother–infant interaction may be an important target for interventions to prevent emotional overeating and overweight in early development, particularly in girls with a history of IUGR.Appetite 10/2014; 81:337–342. · 2.52 Impact Factor