Inducing preschool children's emotional eating: relations with parental feeding practices.
ABSTRACT Children's emotional eating is related to greater body mass index and a less-healthy diet, but little is known about the early development of this behavior.
This study aimed to examine the relations between preschool children's emotional eating and parental feeding practices by using experimental manipulation of child mood and food intake in a laboratory setting.
Twenty-five 3-5-y-old children and their mothers sat together and ate a standard meal to satiety. Mothers completed questionnaires regarding their feeding practices. Children were assigned to a control or negative mood condition, and their consumption of snack foods in the absence of hunger was measured.
Children whose mothers often used food to regulate emotions ate more cookies in the absence of hunger than did children whose mothers used this feeding practice infrequently, regardless of condition. Children whose mothers often used food for emotion regulation purposes ate more chocolate in the experimental condition than in the control condition. The pattern was reversed for children of mothers who did not tend to use food for emotion regulation. There were no significant effects of maternal use of restriction, pressure to eat, and use of foods as a reward on children's snack food consumption. Conclusions: Children of mothers who use food for emotion regulation consume more sweet palatable foods in the absence of hunger than do children of mothers who use this feeding practice infrequently. Emotional overeating behavior may occur in the context of negative mood in children whose mothers use food for emotion regulation purposes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01122290.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Interactions between parents and children in regard to food are an important part of the development of food preferences and intake patterns for children. The measurement of this complex and multidimensional construct is very challenging. Methods: This article examines the current status of measurement in this domain in a selective review, considers qualitative input from parents and adolescents in an empirical examination of the topic, and makes concrete recommendations for the future. Results: Qualitatively, there were important differences between what the adolescents reported that their parents did to impact their eating habits, what parents of younger children report they currently do, and what researchers typically measure in research on parental feeding practices. Conclusions: On the basis of these empirical findings and our review of the literature, we recommend that food parenting be measured on three levels: Feeding styles (e.g., authoritative), food parenting practices (e.g., restriction), and specific feeding behaviors (e.g., putting food out of the child’s reach). Specific recommendations for future study are given for each level of measurement.CHILDHOOD OBESITY. 08/2013; 9(1):32-39.
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ABSTRACT: Within-person changes in estradiol and progesterone predict changes in binge eating tendencies across the menstrual cycle. However, all women have menstrual-cycle fluctuations in hormones, but few experience binge eating. Personality traits may be critical individual difference factors that influence who will engage in emotional eating in the presence of a vulnerable hormonal environment. Women (N=239) provided self-reports of emotional eating and saliva samples for hormone measurement for 45 consecutive days. Negative urgency and negative emotionality were measured once and were examined as moderators of hormone-emotional eating associations. Consistent with prior research, within-person changes in the interaction between estradiol and progesterone predicted emotional eating. Neither negative urgency nor negative emotionality interacted with changes in estradiol and progesterone to predict changes in emotional eating. Additional factors, other than the two personality traits examined, may account for individual differences in within-person associations between hormones and emotional eating.Eating behaviors 04/2013; 14(2):161-6.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Research concerning children's emotional eating behavior has shown its negative impact on weight-related problems. Taking the model of Birch and Davison (2001) into account, we focus on the role of maternal feeding behavior on the association between emotional eating of the mother and the child. METHODS: 482 mothers and their children participated in this cross-sectional study. The mothers were asked about their feeding strategies, their children's and their own emotional eating and weight. We tested a structural equation model for different feeding strategies. RESULTS: In addition to an expected direct association between the mother's and child's emotional eating, the maternal feeding strategies are related to the child's eating behavior. A higher maternal restriction of food or its monitoring was associated with a higher level of children's emotional eating, while allowing the child more control about their eating was linked to less pronounced emotional eating behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the relevance of maternal feeding behavior on emotional eating in childhood. In terms of preventing weight-related problems, the findings indicate the necessity of training parents in allowing their children more control and avoiding the restriction of food.Appetite 02/2013; · 2.54 Impact Factor