Inducing preschool children's emotional eating: relations with parental feeding practices.
ABSTRACT Children's emotional eating is related to greater body mass index and a less-healthy diet, but little is known about the early development of this behavior.
This study aimed to examine the relations between preschool children's emotional eating and parental feeding practices by using experimental manipulation of child mood and food intake in a laboratory setting.
Twenty-five 3-5-y-old children and their mothers sat together and ate a standard meal to satiety. Mothers completed questionnaires regarding their feeding practices. Children were assigned to a control or negative mood condition, and their consumption of snack foods in the absence of hunger was measured.
Children whose mothers often used food to regulate emotions ate more cookies in the absence of hunger than did children whose mothers used this feeding practice infrequently, regardless of condition. Children whose mothers often used food for emotion regulation purposes ate more chocolate in the experimental condition than in the control condition. The pattern was reversed for children of mothers who did not tend to use food for emotion regulation. There were no significant effects of maternal use of restriction, pressure to eat, and use of foods as a reward on children's snack food consumption. Conclusions: Children of mothers who use food for emotion regulation consume more sweet palatable foods in the absence of hunger than do children of mothers who use this feeding practice infrequently. Emotional overeating behavior may occur in the context of negative mood in children whose mothers use food for emotion regulation purposes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01122290.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nutrition in childhood has a significant role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother's life-style has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child, child's diet and body mass index (BMI). This study paper aimed to investigate the association between mother's weight efficacy life-style (WEL) with feeding practices and diet in children aged 3-6 years. In this cross-sectional study, which was carried out in 18 Primary Schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child's demographics. Aspects of mother's WEL and mother's control practices were assessed using WEL questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. Child's dietary intake was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The role of mother's weight efficacy in predicting child's feeding practices and child's diet was assessed using the linear regression. Statistical significance for all P values was set at 0.003. The results were showed that mother's weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices and child's dietary intake. The mothers with similar WEL applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety (β = 1.860), environmental control (β = 0.437), child involvement (β = 0.203) and less emotion regulation using foods (β = -0.213) and their children eat fewer snacks (β = -0.318) (PV= 0.003). The result of this study showed that maternal life-style was associated with feeding practices and child's intake. There was no significant relation between the maternal self-efficacy and child BMI.International journal of preventive medicine 01/2014; 5(1):21-28.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent research suggests a role of cognitive self-regulation skills on obesity and lifestyle behaviors. However, very little is known about the role of emotion regulation. This study examined the association of emotion regulation with lifestyle behaviors and examined a mediational model testing the effects of emotion regulation through self-efficacy and depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 602 adolescents (mean age 12.7years) from 4 public schools in the Bronx, NY. The sample was 58% female, predominantly Hispanic (74%) and US born (81%). Emotion regulation was assessed by 3 indicators and defined as a latent variable. Dependent variables included fruit/vegetable intake, snack/junk food intake, frequency of physical activity, and time spent in sedentary behaviors. Structural equation modeling examined the association of emotion regulation with lifestyle behaviors, with self-efficacy and depressive symptoms defined as potential mediators. The analyses showed that there was a positive association of emotion regulation with higher intake of fruits/vegetable and greater physical activity, which was mediated by self-efficacy. Emotion regulation was related to snack/junk food intake and sedentary behavior, and the structural equation model indicated pathways through an inverse relation to depressive symptoms, but these pathways were only observed in adolescent girls and not boys. These findings indicate that the ability to regulate emotions among adolescents has a role in weight-related behaviors. Future studies may need to explore the relation of other dimensions of emotion to positive health behaviors and study aspects of emotion regulation that may be more relevant for boys.Eating behaviors 12/2013; 14(4):518-21.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Emotional eating is the tendency to eat in response to negative emotions. Prior research has identified a relationship between parenting style and child emotional eating, but this has not been examined in clinical samples. Furthermore, the relationship between specific parenting practices (e.g., parent feeding practices) and child emotional eating has not yet been investigated. The current study examined relationships between child emotional eating and both general and specific parenting constructs as well as maternal symptoms of depression and binge eating among a treatment-seeking sample of overweight children. Participants included 106 mother-child dyads who attended a baseline assessment for enrollment in a behavioral intervention for overeating. Ages of children ranged from 8-12 years old. Mothers completed self-report measures of their child's emotional eating behavior, their own feeding practices, and symptoms of depression and binge eating. Children completed a self-report measure of their mother's general parenting style. A stepwise regression analysis was conducted to identify the parent variable that was most strongly related to child emotional eating, controlling for child age and gender. Emotional feeding behavior (i.e., a tendency to offer food to soothe a child's negative emotions) was the parent factor most significantly related to child emotional eating. Findings suggest that emotional feeding practices in parents may be related to emotional eating in children. Treatment with overweight children who engage in emotional eating may be improved by targeting parent feeding practices.Appetite 04/2014; · 2.54 Impact Factor