Article

Systemically dispersed innate IL-13-expressing cells in type 2 immunity

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0795, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 06/2010; 107(25):11489-94. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1003988107
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Type 2 immunity is a stereotyped host response to allergens and parasitic helminths that is sustained in large part by the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. Recent advances have called attention to the contributions by innate cells in initiating adaptive immunity, including a novel lineage-negative population of cells that secretes IL-13 and IL-5 in response to the epithelial cytokines IL-25 and IL-33. Here, we use IL-4 and IL-13 reporter mice to track lineage-negative innate cells that arise during type 2 immunity or in response to IL-25 and IL-33 in vivo. Unexpectedly, lineage-negative IL-25 (and IL-33) responsive cells are widely distributed in tissues of the mouse and are particularly prevalent in mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. These cells expand robustly in response to exogenous IL-25 or IL-33 and after infection with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, and they are the major innate IL-13-expressing cells under these conditions. Activation of these cells using IL-25 is sufficient for worm clearance, even in the absence of adaptive immunity. Widely dispersed innate type 2 helper cells, which we designate Ih2 cells, play an integral role in type 2 immune responses.

0 Followers
 · 
125 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and the acquired CD4(+) Th2 and Th17 cells contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental asthma; however, their roles in Ag-driven exacerbation of chronic murine allergic airway diseases remain elusive. In this study, we report that repeated intranasal rechallenges with only OVA Ag were sufficient to trigger airway hyperresponsiveness, prominent eosinophilic inflammation, and significantly increased serum OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE in rested mice that previously developed murine allergic airway diseases. The recall response to repeated OVA inoculation preferentially triggered a further increase of lung OVA-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells, whereas CD4(+) Th17 and ILC2 cell numbers remained constant. Furthermore, the acquired CD4(+) Th17 cells in Stat6(-/-)/IL-17-GFP mice, or innate ILC2s in CD4(+) T cell-ablated mice, failed to mount an allergic recall response to OVA Ag. After repeated OVA rechallenge or CD4(+) T cell ablation, the increase or loss of CD4(+) Th2 cells resulted in an enhanced or reduced IL-13 production by lung ILC2s in response to IL-25 and IL-33 stimulation, respectively. In return, ILC2s enhanced Ag-mediated proliferation of cocultured CD4(+) Th2 cells and their cytokine production, and promoted eosinophilic airway inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia driven by adoptively transferred Ag-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells. Thus, these results suggest that an allergic recall response to recurring Ag exposures preferentially triggers an increase of Ag-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells, which facilitates the collaborative interactions between acquired CD4(+) Th2 cells and innate ILC2s to drive the exacerbation of a murine allergic airway diseases with an eosinophilic phenotype. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IL-25 has been implicated in the initiation of type 2 immunity and in the protection against autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have identified the novel innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s) as an IL-25 target cell population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if IL-25 has any influence on atherosclerosis development in mice. Administration of 1 μg IL-25 per day for one week to atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein (apo)E deficient mice, had limited effect on the frequency of T cell populations, but resulted in a large expansion of ILC2s in the spleen. The expansion was accompanied by increased levels of anti-phosphorylcholine (PC) natural IgM antibodies in plasma and elevated levels of IL-5 in plasma and spleen. Transfer of ILC2s to apoE deficient mice elevated the natural antibody-producing B1a cell population in the spleen. Treatment of apoE/Rag-1 deficient mice with IL-25 was also associated with extensive expansion of splenic ILC2s and increased plasma IL-5, suggesting ILC2s to be the source of IL-5. Administration of IL-25 in IL-5 deficient mice resulted in an expanded ILC2 population, but did not stimulate generation of anti-PC IgM, indicating that IL-5 is not required for ILC2 expansion but for the downstream production of natural antibodies. Additionally, administration of 1 μg IL-25 per day for 4 weeks in apoE deficient mice reduced atherosclerosis in the aorta both during initiation and progression of the disease. The present findings demonstrate that IL-25 has a protective role in atherosclerosis mediated by innate responses, including ILC2 expansion, increased IL-5 secretion, B1a expansion and natural anti-PC IgM generation, rather than adaptive Th2 responses.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0117255. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117255 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Memory CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells provide long-term protection against pathogens and are essential for the development of vaccines; however, some antigen-specific memory Th cells also drive immune-related pathology, including asthma. The mechanisms regulating the pathogenicity of memory Th cells remain poorly understood. We found that interleukin-33 (IL-33)-ST2 signals selectively licensed memory Th2 cells to induce allergic airway inflammation via production of IL-5 and that the p38 MAP kinase pathway was a central downstream target of IL-33-ST2 in memory Th2 cells. In addition, we found that IL-33 induced upregulation of IL-5 by memory CD4(+) T cells isolated from nasal polyps of patients with eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis. Thus, IL-33-ST2-p38 signaling appears to directly instruct pathogenic memory Th2 cells to produce IL-5 and induce eosinophilic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Immunity 02/2015; 42(2):294-308. DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2015.01.016 · 19.75 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
16 Downloads
Available from
Jun 16, 2014