GJB1/Connexin 32 whole gene deletions in patients with X-linked Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease
ABSTRACT The X-linked form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) is the second most common form of this genetically heterogeneous inherited peripheral neuropathy. CMT1X is caused by mutations in the GJB1 gene. Most of the mutations causative for CMT1X are missense mutations. In addition, a few disease causative nonsense mutations and frameshift deletions that lead to truncated forms of the protein have also been reported to be associated with CMT1X. Previously, there have been reports of patients with deletions of the coding sequence of GJB1; however, the size and breakpoints of these deletions were not assessed. Here, we report five patients with deletions that range in size from 12.2 to 48.3 kb and that completely eliminate the entire coding sequence of the GJB1 gene, resulting in a null allele for this locus. Analyses of the breakpoints of these deletions showed that they are nonrecurrent and that they can be generated by different mechanisms. In addition to PMP22, GJB1 is the second CMT gene for which both point mutations and genomic rearrangements can cause a neuropathy phenotype, stressing the importance of CMT as a genomic disorder.
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- "For a positive control the DNA carrying a known, previously reported 1,030 bp heterozygous deletion of exon 18 in ABCA4, was used [Yatsenko et al., 2003]. Experimental procedures of aCGH were performed as described previously [Gonzaga-Jauregui et al., 2010] with minor modifications, and results were analyzed using Agilent Genomic Workbench version 7.0 software (Agilent Technologies, CA, United States). The called CNVs were filtered against several criteria and the plausible true-positive CNVs were tested by PCR for molecular validation. "
ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1) is caused by hundreds of mutations in the ABCA4 gene, which are often specific to racial and ethnic groups. Here, we investigated the ABCA4 variation and their phenotypic expression in a cohort of 44 patients of African American descent, a previously under-characterized racial group. Patients were screened for mutations in ABCA4 by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and array-comparative genome hybridization (aCGH), followed by analyses for pathogenicity by in silico programs. Thorough ophthalmic examination was performed on all patients. At least two (expected) disease-causing alleles in the ABCA4 gene were identified in 27 (61.4%) patients, one allele in 11 (25%) patients, and no ABCA4 mutations were found in 6 (13.6%) patients. Altogether, 39 different disease-causing ABCA4 variants, including 7 new, were identified on 65 (74%) chromosomes, most of which were unique for this racial group. The most frequent ABCA4 mutation in this cohort was c.6320G>A (p.(R2107H)), representing 19.3% of all disease-associated alleles. No large copy number variants were identified in any patient. Most patients reported later onset of symptoms. In summary, the ABCA4 mutation spectrum in patients of West African descent differs significantly from that in patients of European descent, resulting in a later onset and ‘milder’ disease.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reservedHuman Mutation 10/2014; 35(10). DOI:10.1002/humu.22626 · 5.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia, type 4 (SPG4), a debilitating disorder of progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs, results from heterozygous mutations in the SPAST gene. The full spectrum of SPAST mutations causing SPG4 and their mechanisms of formation remain to be determined. We used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, locus-specific array comparative genomic hybridization, and breakpoint DNA sequencing to identify and describe genomic rearrangements in three patients with a clinical presentation of hereditary spastic paraplegia. We describe three SPG4 patients with intragenic rearrangements in SPAST; all specifically delete the final exon, exon 17. Breakpoint sequence analyses provide evidence for Alu-specific microhomology-mediated deletion as the mechanism of exon loss; one complex rearrangement apparently occurred by multiple Alu-facilitated template switches. We hypothesize that the high concentration of Alu family members in the introns and flanking sequence of SPAST may predispose to intragenic rearrangements. Thus, Alu-specific microhomology-mediated intragenic rearrangements in SPAST may be a common cause of SPG4. Furthermore, we propose that genomic deletions encompassing the final exon of SPAST may affect expression of SLC30A6, the most proximal downstream locus and a gene that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, potentially explaining recent reports of dementia in selected SPG4 patients.Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 06/2011; 13(6):582-92. DOI:10.1097/GIM.0b013e3182106775 · 6.44 Impact Factor
- The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 12/2011; 31(49):17753-60. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4824-11.2011 · 6.75 Impact Factor