Going up in flames: Necrotic cell injury and inflammatory diseases

Department of Pathology, Immunology and Virology Program Diabetes and Endocrinology Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS (Impact Factor: 5.81). 10/2010; 67(19):3241-53. DOI: 10.1007/s00018-010-0413-8
Source: PubMed


Recent evidence indicates that cell death can be induced through multiple mechanisms. Strikingly, the same death signal can often induce apoptotic as well as non-apoptotic cell death. For instance, inhibition of caspases often converts an apoptotic stimulus to one that causes necrosis. Because a dedicated molecular circuitry distinct from that controlling apoptosis is required for necrotic cell injury, terms such as "programmed necrosis" or "necroptosis" have been used to distinguish stimulus-dependent necrosis from those induced by non-specific traumas (e.g., heat shock) or secondary necrosis induced as a consequence of apoptosis. In several experimental models, programmed necrosis/necroptosis has been shown to be a crucial control point for pathogen- or injury-induced inflammation. In this review, we will discuss the molecular mechanisms that regulate programmed necrosis/necroptosis and its biological significance in pathogen infections, drug-induced cell injury, and trauma-induced tissue damage.

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Available from: Francis Chan, Mar 25, 2014
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    • "After engaging the DAMPs, pattern recognition receptors such as toll-like receptors (e.g. TLR4) activate signaling cascades, which trigger inflammation and damage (Challa & Chan, 2010; Piccinini & Midwood, 2010; Dvoriantchikova et al., 2011, 2014b). In other words, if the cell dies by necrosis, this event leads to pro-inflammatory toxicity that stimulates death of the surrounding cells that have survived the initial stress. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is an important mediator of the innate immune response in the retina. TNF can activate various signaling cascades, including NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways. The harmful role of these pathways, as well as of TNF, has previously been shown in several retinal neurodegenerative conditions including glaucoma and retinal ischemia. However, TNF and TNF-regulated signaling cascades are capable not only of mediating neurotoxicity, but of being protective. We performed this study to delineate the beneficial and detrimental effects of TNF signaling in the retina. To this end, we used TNF-treated primary retinal ganglion cell (RGC) and astrocyte cultures. Levels of expression of NF-κB subunits in RGCs and astrocytes were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot (WB) analysis. NF-κB and JNK activity in TNF-treated cells was determined in a time-dependent manner using ELISA and WB. Gene expression in TNF-treated astrocytes was measured by qRT-PCR. We found that NF-κB family members were present in RGCs and astrocytes at the mRNA and protein levels. RGCs failed to activate NF-κB in the presence of TNF, a phenomenon that was associated with sustained JNK activation and RGC death. However, TNF initiated the activation of NF-κB and mediated transient JNK activation in astrocytes. These events were associated with glial survival and increased expression of neurotoxic pro-inflammatory factors. Our findings suggest that, in the presence of TNF, NF-κB and JNK signaling cascades are activated in opposite ways in RGCs and astrocytes. These events can directly and indirectly facilitate RGC death.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 08/2014; 40(8). DOI:10.1111/ejn.12710 · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    • "Programmed necrosis or necroptosis is a non-apoptotic form of cell death with important functions in pathogen infections, trauma-induced tissue injury, embryonic development and lymphocyte homeostasis [1]. While apoptosis is an immunologically “silent” form of cell death, the release of “danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)” from necrotic cells promotes inflammation [2]. Despite the diametrically opposite effects in physiology, the molecular pathways that regulate apoptosis and programmed necrosis are intimately related. "
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    ABSTRACT: Necroptosis/programmed necrosis is initiated by a macro-molecular protein complex termed the necrosome. Receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1/RIP1) and RIP3 are key components of the necrosome. TNFα is a prototypic inducer of necrosome activation, and it is widely believed that deubiquitination of RIP1 at the TNFR-1 signaling complex precedes transition of RIP1 into the cytosol where it forms the RIP1-RIP3 necrosome. Cylindromatosis (CYLD) is believed to promote programmed necrosis by facilitating RIP1 deubiquitination at this membrane receptor complex. We demonstrate that RIP1 is indeed the primary target of CYLD in TNFα-induced programmed necrosis. We observed that CYLD does not regulate RIP1 ubiquitination at the TNF receptor. TNF and zVAD-induced programmed necrosis was highly attenuated in CYLD(-/-) cells. However, in the presence of cycloheximide or SMAC mimetics, programmed necrosis was only moderately reduced in CYLD(-/-) cells. Under the latter conditions, RIP1-RIP3 necrosome formation is only delayed, but not abolished in CYLD(-/-) cells. We further demonstrate that RIP1 within the NP-40 insoluble necrosome is ubiquitinated and that CYLD regulates RIP1 ubiquitination in this compartment. Hence, RIP1 ubiquitination in this late-forming complex is greatly increased in CYLD(-/-) cells. Increased RIP1 ubiquitination impairs RIP1 and RIP3 phosphorylation, a signature of kinase activation. Our results show that CYLD regulates RIP1 ubiquitination in the TNFα-induced necrosome, but not in the TNFR-1 signaling complex. In cells sensitized to programmed necrosis with SMAC mimetics, CYLD is not essential for necrosome assembly. Since SMAC mimetics induces the loss of the E3 ligases cIAP1 and cIAP2, reduced RIP1 ubiquitination could lead to reduced requirement for CYLD to remove ubiquitin chains from RIP1 in the TNFR-1 complex. As increased RIP1 ubiquitination in the necrosome correlates with impaired RIP1 and RIP3 phosphorylation and function, these results suggest that CYLD controls RIP1 kinase activity during necrosome assembly.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e76841. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0076841 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Our results strongly suggest that CPB can be added to the growing number of bacterial pore-forming toxins that cause tissue damage by inducing necroptosis in their target cells. It remains to be shown whether these toxins may ultimately act via a common pathway, which could involve activation of a necrostatin-inhibitable target, such as RIP1 [36]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Clostridium perfringens β-toxin (CPB) is a β-barrel pore-forming toxin and an essential virulence factor of C. perfringens type C strains, which cause fatal hemorrhagic enteritis in animals and humans. We have previously shown that CPB is bound to endothelial cells within the intestine of affected pigs and humans, and that CPB is highly toxic to primary porcine endothelial cells (pEC) in vitro. The objective of the present study was to investigate the type of cell death induced by CPB in these cells, and to study potential host cell mechanisms involved in this process. CPB rapidly induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, propidium iodide uptake, ATP depletion, potassium efflux, a marked rise in intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)]i, release of high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), and caused ultrastructural changes characteristic of necrotic cell death. Despite a certain level of caspase-3 activation, no appreciable DNA fragmentation was detected. CPB-induced LDH release and propidium iodide uptake were inhibited by necrostatin-1 and the two dissimilar calpain inhibitors PD150606 and calpeptin. Likewise, inhibition of potassium efflux, chelation of intracellular calcium and treatment of pEC with cyclosporin A also significantly inhibited CPB-induced LDH release. Our results demonstrate that rCPB primarily induces necrotic cell death in pEC, and that necrotic cell death is not merely a passive event caused by toxin-induced membrane disruption, but is propagated by host cell-dependent biochemical pathways activated by the rise in intracellular calcium and inhibitable by necrostatin-1, consistent with the emerging concept of programmed necrosis ("necroptosis").
    PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e64644. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0064644 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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