Decreased GABA receptor binding in the cerebral cortex of insulin induced hypoglycemic and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
ABSTRACT Hypoglycemia is the major problem to blood glucose homeostasis in treatment of diabetes and is associated with severe irreversible consequences including seizures, coma and death. GABAergic inhibitory function in the cerebral cortex plays an important role in controlling the excitability and responsiveness of cortical neurons. Present study analysed effects of insulin induced hypoglycemia and streptozotocin induced diabetes on the cortical GABA receptor binding, GABA(Aά1), GABA(B) receptor subtype expression, GAD and GLUT3 expression. Diabetic rats showed decreased [(3)H] GABA binding in the cerebral cortex compared to control while hypoglycemia exacerbated the decrease. GABA receptor subunits; GABA(Aά1), GABA(B) and GAD expression significantly decreased in diabetic rats whereas hypoglycemia significanly decreased the expression compared to diabetic. GLUT3 expression significantly up regulated during both hypo and hyperglycemia. Our results showed that hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia decreased GABAergic neuroprotective function in the cerebral cortex, which account for the increased vulnerability of cerebral cortex to subsequent neuronal damage during hypo/hyperglycemia.
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with brain alterations that may contribute to cognitive dysfunctions. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeine (CA), abundant in coffee (CF), are natural compounds that have showed important actions in the brain. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of CGA, CA, and CF on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities and TBARS levels from cerebral cortex, as well as memory and anxiety in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5-10): control; control/CGA 5 mg/kg; control/CA 15 mg/kg; control/CF 0.5 g/kg; diabetic; diabetic/CGA 5 mg/kg; diabetic/CA 15 mg/kg; and diabetic/CF 0.5 g/kg. Our results demonstrated an increase in AChE activity and TBARS levels in cerebral cortex, while δ-ALA-D and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities were decreased in the diabetic rats when compared to control water group. Furthermore, a memory deficit and an increase in anxiety in diabetic rats were observed. The treatment with CGA and CA prevented the increase in AChE activity in diabetic rats when compared to the diabetic water group. CGA, CA, and CF intake partially prevented cerebral δ-ALA-D and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity decrease due to diabetes. Moreover, CGA prevented diabetes-induced TBARS production, improved memory, and decreased anxiety. In conclusion, among the compounds studied CGA proved to be a compound which acts better in the prevention of brain disorders promoted by DM.Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 12/2013; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clinical and preclinical data suggest that diabetes is often associated with anxiety. Insulin, a peptide hormone has been reported to have key functions in the brain and in alleviating several psychological impairments, occur as a consequence of diabetes. However, its effects in diabetes-induced anxiety are scanty. The present study examined whether; insulin can reverse the anxiety-like behavior in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in mice. After 8-weeks of diabetes induced by STZ (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)), mice were given insulin (1-2 IU/kg/day, i.p.)/ diazepam (1 mg/kg/day, i.p.)/ vehicle for 14 days and evaluated for behavioral effects in three validated models of anxiety viz. elevated plus maze (EPM), light-dark (L/D) and hole board (HB) tests. STZ-induced diabetic mice elicited significant behavioral effects which include, decreased percentage open arm entries and time in EPM, reduced latency and time spent in light chamber in L/D, decreased number of head dips, squares crossed and rearings in HB tests respectively. Insulin treatment attenuated the behavioral effects evoked by STZ-induced diabetes in mice as indicated by increased open arms activity in EPM, decreased aversion in light chamber during L/D test and increased exploratory behavior in HB test. In conclusion, this study revealed that insulin can reverse anxiety-like behavior in STZ-induced diabetes in mice.Metabolic Brain Disease 04/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One of the key causes of development of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications is change in the functional activity of hormonal signaling systems regulated by hormones of different natures, as is shown by literature data and by the results of our study on animal models of DM and on human DM of types 1 and 2. The brain peptidergic systems regulated by melanocortin receptor agonists, neuropeptide Y, glucagon-like peptide-1, kisspeptines, and somatostatin, play an important role in etiology and pathogenesis of DM. However, the data on interrelations between the functional state of these systems and the development of DM and its complications are scarce and contradictory. The changes in the peptidergic systems are usually the result of metabolic and functional disregulations caused by DM but in some cases may themselves become the cause of DM, as is shown in the case of the melanocortin signaling system. This review is focused on functioning of the brain peptidergic systems in DM and on the possible role of changes of their activity in development of the disease. The hypothesis of central genesis of type 2 DM, which based on data on the generation of insulin resistance and disturbances of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in response to changes of functional activity of the brain signaling systems regulated by neuropeptides, is discussed.Cell and Tissue Biology 01/2013; 7(3).