Decreased GABA receptor binding in the cerebral cortex of insulin induced hypoglycemic and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
ABSTRACT Hypoglycemia is the major problem to blood glucose homeostasis in treatment of diabetes and is associated with severe irreversible consequences including seizures, coma and death. GABAergic inhibitory function in the cerebral cortex plays an important role in controlling the excitability and responsiveness of cortical neurons. Present study analysed effects of insulin induced hypoglycemia and streptozotocin induced diabetes on the cortical GABA receptor binding, GABA(Aά1), GABA(B) receptor subtype expression, GAD and GLUT3 expression. Diabetic rats showed decreased [(3)H] GABA binding in the cerebral cortex compared to control while hypoglycemia exacerbated the decrease. GABA receptor subunits; GABA(Aά1), GABA(B) and GAD expression significantly decreased in diabetic rats whereas hypoglycemia significanly decreased the expression compared to diabetic. GLUT3 expression significantly up regulated during both hypo and hyperglycemia. Our results showed that hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia decreased GABAergic neuroprotective function in the cerebral cortex, which account for the increased vulnerability of cerebral cortex to subsequent neuronal damage during hypo/hyperglycemia.
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ABSTRACT: Nosologically, Alzheimer disease may not be considered to be a single disorder in spite of a common clinical phenotype. Only a small proportion of about 5% to 10% of all Alzheimer cases is due to genetic mutations (type I) whereas the great majority of patients was found to be sporadic in origin. It may be assumed that susceptibility genes along with lifestyle risk factors contribute to the causation of the age-related sporadic Alzheimer disease (type II). In this context, the desensitization of the neuronal insulin receptor similar to not-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus may be of pivotal significance. This abnormality along with a reduction in brain insulin concentration is assumed to induce a cascade-like process of disturbances including cellular glucose, acetylcholine, cholesterol, and ATP associated with abnormalities in membrane pathology and the formation of both amyloidogenic derivatives and hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Sporadic Alzheimer disease may, thus, be considered to be the brain type of diabetes mellitus II. Experimental evidence is provided and discussed.Journal of Neural Transmission 04/2002; 109(3):341-60. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Apoptosis is an active process of cell destruction, characterized by cell shrinkage, chromatin aggregation with extensive genomic fragmentation, and nuclear pyknosis. In contrast, necrosis is characterized by passive cell swelling, intense mitochondrial damage with rapid energy loss, and generalized disruption of internal homeostasis. This swiftly leads to membrane lysis, release of intracellular constituents that evoke a local inflammatory reaction, edema, and injury to the surrounding tissue. In collaboration, our two research laboratories have been defining excitotoxic signals that lead to apoptosis versus necrosis via, among other pathways, Ca2+ signaling mechanisms; this is the subject of this brief review.Cell Calcium 01/1998; 23(2-3):165-71. · 4.33 Impact Factor
- Epilepsy Currents 01/2007; 7(1):28-30. · 2.33 Impact Factor