Efficacy of RAD001 (everolimus) against advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination.
ABSTRACT Peritoneal dissemination occurs frequently in patients with unresectable advanced-stage gastric cancer. In this study, we tested the efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 (everolimus) against advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination. Using the two cell lines, 58As1, a cell line exhibiting a high propensity for peritoneal metastasis, and its parental cell line, HSC-58, a human scirrhous gastric cancer cell line, we first examined the growth-inhibitory activity of everolimus in vitro. Methylene blue assay demonstrated a moderate inhibitory effect of the drug on both cell lines under normal culture conditions (maximal inhibitory effect: 50.5% at 1 μM, HSC-58, 65.3%, 58As1). However, under the hypoxic condition (1% O(2)), while the growth-inhibitory activity of everolimus was greatly reduced in the HSC-58 cell line, the degree of reduction of the inhibitory activity was much smaller in the 58As1 cell line. Western blotting revealed that the degree of phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream signaling molecules, p70S6K and 4E-BP1, was decreased under hypoxic conditions in HSC-58. On the other hand, phospho-p70S6K and phospho-4E-BP1 remained active under hypoxic conditions in 58As1, the molecular activity was suppressed by everolimus. Cell-cycle analysis showed that hypoxia-induced G1 arrest was not manifested in the 58As1 cells, unlike in the HSC-58 cells. Separately, an in vivo orthotopic mouse model of 58As1 revealed that everolimus significantly reduced peritoneal dissemination as evaluated by the quantitative photon counting method. Taken together, our results suggest that everolimus may have favorable activity against gastric cancer, particularly in cases with peritoneal dissemination.
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ABSTRACT: It is increasingly recognized that gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease which may be divided into subgroups based on histological, anatomical, epidemiological and molecular classifications. Distinct molecular drivers and tumor biology, and thus different treatment targets and predictive biomarkers, may be implicated in each subtype. However, there is little evidence in the literature regarding the correlation among these different classifications, and particularly the molecular aberrations present in each subtype. In this review, we approach advanced gastric cancer (AGC) by presenting aberrant molecular pathways and their potential therapeutic targets in gastric cancer according to histological and anatomical classification, dividing gastric cancer into proximal nondiffuse, distal nondiffuse and diffuse disease. Several pathways are involved predominantly, although not exclusively, in different subtypes. This may help to explain the disappointing results of many published AGC trials in which study populations were heterogeneous regardless of clinicopathological characteristics of the primary tumor. Histological and anatomical classification may provide insights into tumor biology and facilitate selection of an enriched patient population for targeted agents in future studies and in the clinic. However, some molecular pathways implicated in gastric cancer have not been studied in correlation with histological or anatomical subtypes. Further studies are necessary to confirm the suggestion that such classification may predict tumor biology and facilitate selection of an enriched patient population for targeted agents in future studies and in the clinic.Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 01/2013; 6(1):15-31.
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ABSTRACT: Although the incidence of gastric cancer has fallen steadily in developed countries over the past 50 years, outcomes in Western countries remain poor, primarily due to the advanced stage of the disease at presentation. While earlier diagnosis would help to improve outcomes for patients with gastric cancer, better understanding of the biology of the disease is also needed, along with advances in therapy. Indeed, progress in the treatment of gastric cancer has been limited, mainly because of its genetic complexity and heterogeneity. As a result, there is an urgent need to apply precision medicine to the management of the disease in order to ensure that individuals receive the most appropriate treatment. This article suggests a number of strategies that may help to accelerate progress in treating patients with gastric cancer. Incorporation of some of these approaches could help to improve the quality of life and survival for patients diagnosed with the disease. Standardisation of care across Europe through expansion of the European Registration of Cancer Care (EURECCA) registry – a European cancer audit that aims to improve quality and decrease variation in care across the region – may also be expected to lead to improved outcomes for those suffering from this common malignancy.Cancer Treatment Reviews 01/2014; · 6.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Despite improvements in surgical and adjuvant treatment approaches, gastric cancer remains a global public health problem with a 5-year overall survival of less than 25 %. This is a heterogeneous disease, both in terms of biology and genetics, and many prognostic biomarkers have been pointed out in the literature; nevertheless, their application remains debatable. In this review, we opted to give relevance to those biomarkers that have been the subject of studies with significant statistical power, which have been replicated and have been/are in targeted therapy clinical trials and, which as a consequence, have their prognostic and/or predictive value established. Some gastric cancer biomarkers that may help in defining the course of treatment are also discussed. Accepted practical guidelines, wet-lab protocols for the detection of these biomarkers, as well as ongoing and completed clinical trials have been compiled. In summary, clinical approaches based on the combination of correct staging with targeted and conventional systemic therapies may improve gastric cancer patients' outcome, but are only in their infancy. Some major challenges in identifying reliable prognostic/predictive biomarkers are individual genetic variation and tumour heterogeneity that often influence response to therapy and drug resistance. Prognostic and predictive biomarkers may nevertheless be extremely valuable to correctly stratify gastric cancer patients for treatment and, ultimately, improve survival.Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 02/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor