Peritoneal dissemination occurs frequently in patients with unresectable advanced-stage gastric cancer. In this study, we tested the efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 (everolimus) against advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination. Using the two cell lines, 58As1, a cell line exhibiting a high propensity for peritoneal metastasis, and its parental cell line, HSC-58, a human scirrhous gastric cancer cell line, we first examined the growth-inhibitory activity of everolimus in vitro. Methylene blue assay demonstrated a moderate inhibitory effect of the drug on both cell lines under normal culture conditions (maximal inhibitory effect: 50.5% at 1 μM, HSC-58, 65.3%, 58As1). However, under the hypoxic condition (1% O(2)), while the growth-inhibitory activity of everolimus was greatly reduced in the HSC-58 cell line, the degree of reduction of the inhibitory activity was much smaller in the 58As1 cell line. Western blotting revealed that the degree of phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream signaling molecules, p70S6K and 4E-BP1, was decreased under hypoxic conditions in HSC-58. On the other hand, phospho-p70S6K and phospho-4E-BP1 remained active under hypoxic conditions in 58As1, the molecular activity was suppressed by everolimus. Cell-cycle analysis showed that hypoxia-induced G1 arrest was not manifested in the 58As1 cells, unlike in the HSC-58 cells. Separately, an in vivo orthotopic mouse model of 58As1 revealed that everolimus significantly reduced peritoneal dissemination as evaluated by the quantitative photon counting method. Taken together, our results suggest that everolimus may have favorable activity against gastric cancer, particularly in cases with peritoneal dissemination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper provides a framework for understanding trade patterns in the Mashreq. An augmented gravity model is used to compare actual with expected levels of trade. Trade barriers, political uncertainty, and over-appreciation of domestic currencies seem to explain low levels of international trade. At the intra-regional level, specific trade barriers between Israel and other Mashreq countries reduce further levels of trade. Quite surprisingly, removing Israel from the sample leads to higher actual intra-regional trade than predicted. The analysis suggests that trade liberalization, correction of currency misalignments, reduction of political uncertainty, and improved trade relations with Israel would boost trade in the region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite its decreasing incidence in western countries, the care of gastric cancer remains a concern, as many patients are diagnosed with advanced disease. Whereas localized gastric cancer has benefited from advances in surgical management and perioperative chemotherapy, patients with unresectable or metastatic disease have a poor prognosis. However, advances in chemotherapy have still arisen, with the onset of more convenient and active schedules of treatment, but no significant breakthrough has been achieved in terms of survival. Recent trials in advanced gastric cancer have been focusing on targeted therapies. This article aims to focus on the current state of the art in terms of chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer, as well as to describe and explain the rationale and hopes for newer therapies that are currently under investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is increasingly recognized that gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease which may be divided into subgroups based on histological, anatomical, epidemiological and molecular classifications. Distinct molecular drivers and tumor biology, and thus different treatment targets and predictive biomarkers, may be implicated in each subtype. However, there is little evidence in the literature regarding the correlation among these different classifications, and particularly the molecular aberrations present in each subtype. In this review, we approach advanced gastric cancer (AGC) by presenting aberrant molecular pathways and their potential therapeutic targets in gastric cancer according to histological and anatomical classification, dividing gastric cancer into proximal nondiffuse, distal nondiffuse and diffuse disease. Several pathways are involved predominantly, although not exclusively, in different subtypes. This may help to explain the disappointing results of many published AGC trials in which study populations were heterogeneous regardless of clinicopathological characteristics of the primary tumor. Histological and anatomical classification may provide insights into tumor biology and facilitate selection of an enriched patient population for targeted agents in future studies and in the clinic. However, some molecular pathways implicated in gastric cancer have not been studied in correlation with histological or anatomical subtypes. Further studies are necessary to confirm the suggestion that such classification may predict tumor biology and facilitate selection of an enriched patient population for targeted agents in future studies and in the clinic.
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