Efficacy of RAD001 (everolimus) against advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination.
ABSTRACT Peritoneal dissemination occurs frequently in patients with unresectable advanced-stage gastric cancer. In this study, we tested the efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 (everolimus) against advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination. Using the two cell lines, 58As1, a cell line exhibiting a high propensity for peritoneal metastasis, and its parental cell line, HSC-58, a human scirrhous gastric cancer cell line, we first examined the growth-inhibitory activity of everolimus in vitro. Methylene blue assay demonstrated a moderate inhibitory effect of the drug on both cell lines under normal culture conditions (maximal inhibitory effect: 50.5% at 1 μM, HSC-58, 65.3%, 58As1). However, under the hypoxic condition (1% O(2)), while the growth-inhibitory activity of everolimus was greatly reduced in the HSC-58 cell line, the degree of reduction of the inhibitory activity was much smaller in the 58As1 cell line. Western blotting revealed that the degree of phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream signaling molecules, p70S6K and 4E-BP1, was decreased under hypoxic conditions in HSC-58. On the other hand, phospho-p70S6K and phospho-4E-BP1 remained active under hypoxic conditions in 58As1, the molecular activity was suppressed by everolimus. Cell-cycle analysis showed that hypoxia-induced G1 arrest was not manifested in the 58As1 cells, unlike in the HSC-58 cells. Separately, an in vivo orthotopic mouse model of 58As1 revealed that everolimus significantly reduced peritoneal dissemination as evaluated by the quantitative photon counting method. Taken together, our results suggest that everolimus may have favorable activity against gastric cancer, particularly in cases with peritoneal dissemination.
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ABSTRACT: The orally bioavailable rapamycin derivative RAD001 (everolimus) targets the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and possesses potent immunosuppressive and anticancer activities. Here, the antitumor activity of RAD001 was evaluated in the CA20948 syngeneic rat pancreatic tumor model. RAD001 demonstrated dose-dependent antitumor activity with daily and weekly administration schedules; statistically significant antitumor effects were observed with 2.5 and 0.5 mg/kg RAD001 administered daily [treated tumor versus control tumor size (T/C), 23% and 23-30%, respectively], with 3-5 mg/kg RAD001 administered once weekly (T/C, 14-36%), or with 5 mg/kg RAD001 administered twice weekly (T/C, 36%). These schedules were well tolerated and exhibited antitumor potency similar to that of the cytotoxic agent 5-fluorouracil (T/C, 23%). Moreover, the efficacy of intermittent treatment schedules suggests a therapeutic window allowing differentiation of antitumor activity from the immunosuppressive properties of this agent. Detailed biochemical profiling of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in tumors, skin, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), after a single administration of 5 mg/kg RAD001, indicated that RAD001 treatment blocked phosphorylation of the translational repressor eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 and inactivated the translational activator ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). The efficacy of intermittent treatment schedules was associated with prolonged inactivation of S6K1 in tumors and surrogate tissues (> or =72 h). Furthermore, detailed analysis of the dose dependency of weekly treatment schedules demonstrated a correlation between antitumor efficacy and prolonged effects (> or =7 days) on PBMC-derived S6K1 activity. Analysis of human PBMCs revealed that S6K1 also underwent a concentration-dependent inactivation after RAD001 treatment ex vivo (>95% inactivation with 20 nM RAD001). In contrast, human PBMC-derived eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 was present predominantly in the hypophosphorylated form and was unaffected by RAD001 treatment. Taken together, these results demonstrate a correlation between the antitumor efficacy of intermittent RAD001 treatment schedules and prolonged S6K1 inactivation in PBMCs and suggest that long-term monitoring of PBMC-derived S6K1 activity levels could be used for assessing RAD001 treatment schedules in cancer patients.Cancer Research 01/2004; 64(1):252-61. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has become an interesting target for cancer therapy through its influence on oncogenic signals, which involve phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha). Since mTOR is an upstream regulator of HIF-1alpha, a key mediator of gastric cancer growth and angiogenesis, we investigated mTOR activation in human gastric adenocarcinoma specimens and determined whether rapamycin could inhibit gastric cancer growth in mice. Expression of phospho-mTOR was assessed by immunohistochemical analyses of human tissues. For in vitro studies, human gastric cancer cell lines were used to determine S6K1, 4E-BP-1 and HIF-1alpha activation and cancer cell motility upon rapamycin treatment. Effects of rapamycin on tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo were assessed in both a subcutaneous tumor model and in an experimental model with orthotopically grown tumors. Mice received either rapamycin (0.5 mg/kg/day or 1.5 mg/kg/day) or diluent per intra-peritoneal injections. In addition, antiangiogenic effects were monitored in vivo using a dorsal-skin-fold chamber model. Immunohistochemical analyses showed strong expression of phospho-mTOR in 60% of intestinal- and 64% of diffuse-type human gastric adenocarcinomas. In vitro, rapamycin-treatment effectively blocked S6K1, 4E-BP-1 and HIF-1alpha activation, and significantly impaired tumor cell migration. In vivo, rapamycin-treatment led to significant inhibition of subcutaneous tumor growth, decreased CD31-positive vessel area and reduced tumor cell proliferation. Similar significant results were obtained in an orthotopic model of gastric cancer. In the dorsal-skin-fold chamber model, rapamycin-treatment significantly inhibited tumor vascularization in vivo. In conclusion, mTOR is frequently activated in human gastric cancer and represents a promising new molecular target for therapy.International Journal of Cancer 05/2007; 120(8):1803-10. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mesothelial cell monolayers have been reported to prevent infiltration of cancer cells into the peritoneum. We have previously reported that peritoneal fibrosis induced by gastric cancer cells prior to metastatization may provide a congenial environment for peritoneal metastases. In this study, we investigated the effects of peritoneal fibroblasts on peritoneal mesothelial cell morphology. Human gastric cancer (OCUM-2MD3), peritoneal fibroblast (NF-2P) and mesothelial (MS-1) cell lines were established in our laboratory. Histology of the peritoneum was investigated following intraperitoneal inoculation of serum-free conditioned media (SF-CM) from OCUM-2MD3 cells into nude mice. SF-CM from peritoneal fibroblasts was added to monolayer-cultured mesothelial cells, and their morphology was examined by phase-contrast microscopy. This experiment was conducted in the presence and absence of neutralizing antibodies against various factors. Mesothelial cells exposed to fibroblasts proliferation became hemispherical and separated from each other, while unexposed mesothelium remained as a flat monolayer. Cultured-mesothelial cells rounded up or exhibited a fibroblast-like shape following the addition of peritoneal fibroblast SF-CM. Anti-hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) neutralizing antibody partly inhibited this effect. We suggest that soluble factors, such as HGF, produced by peritoneal fibroblasts affect the morphology of mesothelial cells in monolayers so that the resulting environment may become prone to the peritoneal dissemination of cancer cells.International Journal of Cancer 08/1996; 67(2):289-93. · 6.20 Impact Factor