An evaluation of the role of properdin in alternative pathway activation on Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 07/2010; 185(1):507-16. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.0903598
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Properdin, a positive regulator of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement is important in innate immune defenses against invasive neisserial infections. Recently, commercially available unfractionated properdin was shown to bind to certain biological surfaces, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which facilitated C3 deposition. Unfractionated properdin contains aggregates or high-order oligomers, in addition to its physiological "native" (dimeric, trimeric, and tetrameric) forms. We examined the role of properdin in AP activation on diverse strains of Neisseria meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae specifically using native versus unfractionated properdin. C3 deposition on Neisseria decreased markedly when properdin function was blocked using an anti-properdin mAb or when properdin was depleted from serum. Maximal AP-mediated C3 deposition on Neisseriae even at high (80%) serum concentrations required properdin. Consistent with prior observations, preincubation of bacteria with unfractionated properdin, followed by the addition of properdin-depleted serum resulted in higher C3 deposition than when bacteria were incubated with properdin-depleted serum alone. Unexpectedly, none of 10 Neisserial strains tested bound native properdin. Consistent with its inability to bind to Neisseriae, preincubating bacteria with native properdin followed by the addition of properdin-depleted serum did not cause detectable increases in C3 deposition. However, reconstituting properdin-depleted serum with native properdin a priori enhanced C3 deposition on all strains of Neisseria tested. In conclusion, the physiological forms of properdin do not bind directly to either N. meningitidis or N. gonorrhoeae but play a crucial role in augmenting AP-dependent C3 deposition on the bacteria through the "conventional" mechanism of stabilizing AP C3 convertases.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Scabies is a ubiquitous and contagious skin disease caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Epidemiological studies have identified scabies as a causative agent for secondary skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. This is an important notion, as such bacterial infections can lead to serious downstream life-threatening complications. Since the complement system is the first line of host defense that confronts invading pathogens, both the mite and bacteria produce a large array of molecules that inhibit the complement cascades. It is hypothesized that scabies mite complement inhibitors may play an important role in providing a favorable micro-environment for the establishment of secondary bacterial infections. This review aims to bring together the current literature on complement inhibition by scabies mites and bacteria associated with scabies and to discuss the proposed molecular link between scabies and bacterial co-infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Parasite Immunology 07/2014; · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Scabies is a contagious skin disease caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The disease is highly prevalent worldwide and known to predispose to secondary bacterial infections, in particular by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Reports of scabies patients co-infected with methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) pose a major concern for serious down-stream complications. We previously reported that a range of complement inhibitors secreted by the mites promoted the growth of S. pyogenes. Here, we show that a recently characterized mite serine protease inhibitor (SMSB4) inhibits the complement-mediated blood killing of S. aureus.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 06/2014; 8(6):e2928. · 4.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Modern medicine has established three central antimicrobial therapeutic concepts: vaccination, antibiotics, and, recently, the use of active immunotherapy to enhance the immune response toward specific pathogens. The efficacy of vaccination and antibiotics is limited by the emergence of new pathogen strains and the increased incidence of antibiotic resistance. To date, immunotherapy development has focused mainly on cytokines. Here we report the successful therapeutic application of a complement component, a recombinant form of properdin (Pn), with significantly higher activity than native properdin, which promotes complement activation via the alternative pathway, affording protection against N. menigitidis and S. pneumoniae. In a mouse model of infection, we challenged C57BL/6 WT mice with N. menigitidis B-MC58 6 h after i.p. administration of Pn (100 µg/mouse) or buffer alone. Twelve hours later, all control mice showed clear symptoms of infectious disease while the Pn treated group looked healthy. After 16 hours, all control mice developed sepsis and had to be culled, while only 10% of Pn treated mice presented with sepsis and recoverable levels of live Meningococci. In a parallel experiment, mice were challenged intranasally with a lethal dose of S. pneumoniae D39. Mice that received a single i.p. dose of Pn at the time of infection showed no signs of bacteremia at 12 h postinfection and had prolonged survival times compared with the saline-treated control group (P < 0.0001). Our findings show a significant therapeutic benefit of Pn administration and suggest that its antimicrobial activity could open new avenues for fighting infections caused by multidrug-resistant neisserial or streptococcal strains.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 1, 2014