Hepatitis C virus infection is significantly associated with malignant lymphoma in Taiwan, particularly with nodal and splenic marginal zone lymphomas.
ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a hepatotropic and lymphotropic RNA virus causally linked to lymphoma with a strong geographic variation. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of HCV and lymphoma in Taiwan, in which HCV is endemic.
Patients diagnosed with lymphoma from January 2004 to December 2008 were investigated for serum anti-HCV, and the infection rate was compared with that in healthy controls. Various lymphoma types were investigated for HCV infection. Immunohistochemistry was performed for HCV non-structural (NS)3 protein, and genotyping was performed by reverse transcriptase PCR.
Thirty-eight (11.0%) of 346 patients with lymphoma were positive for anti-HCV, as compared with 15 (1.8%) of 824 healthy controls (p<0.001, chi(2) test) with an age-adjusted and sex-adjusted OR of 4.57 (95% CI 2.41 to 8.68). Only nodal (five of eight cases) and splenic (two of two cases) marginal zone lymphomas (MZLs) as a group were significantly associated with HCV, as compared with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas (1 of 15; p=0.002, Fisher's exact test). All 26 anti-HCV-positive cases stained for HCV-NS3 were negative. The most common genotypes were 1b (22%) and 2a (56%), with no statistical difference from 203 patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease.
The incidence of HCV infection among lymphoma patients in Taiwan was significantly higher than that for healthy controls. Furthermore, non-MALT (nodal and splenic) MZL was the only group significantly associated with HCV. A larger national study is warranted to re-confirm our findings and to elucidate if any particular HCV genotypes were related to the pathogenesis of lymphoma.
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ABSTRACT: Accumulated evidence implies that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects not only the liver but also the immune system. A lymphocyte-specific CD5 molecule was recently identified as essential for infection of T cells with native, patient-derived HCV. To assess whether the proposed hepatocyte receptors may also contribute to HCV lymphotropism, expression of scavenger receptor-class B type 1 (SR-B1), claudin-1 (CLDN-1), claudin-6 (CLDN-6), occludin (OCLN), CD5 and CD81 was examined by real-time RT-PCR and the respective proteins quantified by immunoblotting in HCV-prone and resistant T cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), primary T cells and their subsets, and compared to hepatoma Huh7.5 and HepG2 cells. SR-B1 protein was found in T and hepatoma cell lines but not in PBMC or primary T lymphocytes, CLDN-1 in HCV-resistant PM1 T cell line and hepatoma cells only, while CLDN-6 equally in the cells investigated. OCLN protein occurred in HCV-susceptible Molt4 and Jurkat T cells and its traces in primary T cells, but not in PBMC. CD5 was displayed by HCV-prone T cell lines, primary T cells and PBMC, but not by non-susceptible T and hepatoma cell lines, while CD81 in all cell types except HepG2. Knocking-down OCLN in virus-prone T cell line inhibited HCV infection, while de novo infection downregulated OCLN and CD81, and upregulated CD5 without modifying SR-B1 expression. Overall, while no association between SR-B1, CLDN-1 or CLDN-6 and the susceptibility to HCV was found, CD5 and CD81 expression coincided with virus lymphotropism and that of OCLN with permissiveness of T cell lines but unlikely primary T cells. This study narrowed the range of factors potentially utilized by HCV to infect T lymphocytes amongst those uncovered using laboratory HCV and Huh7.5 cells. Together with the demonstrated role for CD5 in HCV lymphotropism, the findings indicate that virus utilizes different molecules to enter hepatocytes and lymphocytes.PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e62159. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A significant association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and B-cell lymphoma has been reported by epidemiological studies, most of them describing a strong relationship between indolent lymphomas and HCV. Furthermore, the curative potential of antiviral therapy on HCV related indolent lymphomas supports a specific role for the virus in lymphomagenesis. These observations are reinforced by numerous laboratory experiments that led to several hypothetical models of B-cell transformation by HCV. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common lymphoma subtype in the western countries, has been associated to HCV infection despite its aggressive nature. This association seems particularly prominent in some geographical areas. Clinical presentation of HCV-associated DLBCL has consistently been reported to differ from the HCV-negative counterpart. Nevertheless, histopathology, tolerance to standard-of-care chemo-immunotherapy (R-CHOP or CHOP-like regimens) and final outcome of HCV-positive DLBCL patients is still matter of debate. Addition of rituximab has been described to enhance viral replication but the probability of severe hepatic complications remains low, with some exceptions (i.e., hepatitis B virus or immune immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients, presence of grade > 2 transaminases elevation, cirrhosis or hepatocarcinoma). HCV viral load in this setting is not necessarily directly associated with liver damage. Overall, treatment of HCV associated DLBCL should be performed in an interdisciplinary approach with hepatologists and hematologists with close monitoring of liver function. Available reports reveal that the final outcome of HCV-positive DLBCL that receive standard immunochemotherapy is not inferior to their HCV-negative counterpart. This review summarizes data on epidemiology, pathogenesis and therapeutic approach on HCV-associated DLBCL. Several issues that are matter of debate like clinical management of patients with transaminase elevation, criteria for discontinuing or starting immuno-chemotherapy, as well as the exact role of monoclonal antibodies will be analyzed.World Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2014; 20(32):11054-11061. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with liver cancer and cirrhosis, autoimmune disorders such as thyroiditis and mixed cryoglobulinema, and alterations in immune function and chronic inflammation, both implicated in B cell lymphoproliferative diseases that may progress to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). HCV bound to B cell surface receptors can induce lymphoproliferation, leading to DNA mutations and/or lower antigen response thresholds. These findings and epidemiological reports suggest an association between HCV infection and NHL. We performed a systematic review of the literature to clarify this potential relationship. We searched the English-language literature utilizing Medline, Embase, Paper First, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, with search terms broadly defined to capture discussions of HCV and its relationship with NHL and/or lymphoproliferative diseases. References were screened to further identify relevant studies and literature in the basic sciences. A total of 62 reports discussing the relationship between HCV, NHL, and lymphoproliferative diseases were identified. Epidemiological studies suggest that at least a portion of NHL may be etiologically attributable to HCV, particularly in areas with high HCV prevalence. Studies that showed a lack of association between HCV infection and lymphoma may have been influenced by small sample size, short follow-up periods, and database limitations. The association appears strongest with the B-cell lymphomas relative to other lymphoproliferative diseases. Mechanisms by which chronic HCV infection promotes lymphoproliferative disease remains unclear. Lymphomagenesis is a multifactorial process involving genetic, environmental, and infectious factors. HCV most probably have a role in the lymphomagenesis but further study to clarify the association and underlying mechanisms is warranted.World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 11/2014; 20(43):16197-16202.