Article

Amphetamines detected in exhaled breath from drug addicts: A new possible method for drugs-of-abuse testing.

Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. <>
Journal of analytical toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.11). 06/2010; 34(5):233-7. DOI: 10.1093/jat/34.5.233
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Testing for drugs of abuse in sample matrices alternative to urine such as blood, sweat, and saliva have received increasing attention and is needed, for example, in traffic medicine. Human breath is known to contain a large number of substances including non-volatile molecules. We explore whether intake of amphetamines could be detected by analytical investigation of exhaled breath from drug addicts. Exhaled breath was collected from 12 drug addict patients after recovering from acute intoxication. Self-reported intake of "amphetamine" was confirmed by analysis of urine and plasma. The compounds were trapped by filtering the air through a modified silica surface and subsequently analyzed by a combined liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. As a control, exhaled breath was collected in the same way from eight healthy volunteers. Here we report for the first time that amphetamine and methamphetamine are present in exhaled breath following ingestion of these compounds by drug addicts. Both amphetamine and methamphetamine were indisputably identified by means of the mass spectrometry technique in exhaled breath samples from all 12 patients. Identifications were based on monitoring two product ions in selected reaction monitoring mode and having correct relative ratios (+/- 20%). Excretion rates ranged from 0.2 to 139 pg/min. No amphetamine or methamphetamine was detected in the control subjects. This finding, using a yet non-validated sampling procedure, opens a new possibility for drugs-of-abuse testing. Collection of exhaled breath is likely to be more convenient and safe as compared to matrices presently in use.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
202 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Exhaled breath is being developed as a possible specimen for drug testing based on the collection of aerosol particles originating from the lung fluid. The present study was aimed to evaluate the applicability of exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing in criminal justice settings. Particles in exhaled breath were collected with a new device in parallel with routine urine testing in two Swedish prisons, comprising both genders. Urine screening was performed according to established routines either by dipstick or by immunochemical methods at the Forensic Chemistry Laboratory and confirmations were with mass spectrometry methods. A total of 247 parallel samples were studied. Analysis of exhaled breath samples was done with a sensitive mass spectrometric method and identifications were made according to forensic standards. In addition tested subjects and personnel were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their views about drug testing. In 212 cases both the urine and breath testing were negative, and in 22 cases both urine and breath were positive. Out of 6 cases where breath was negative and urine positive 4 concerned THC. Out of 7 cases where, breath was positive and urine negative 6 concerned amphetamine. Detected substances in breath comprised: amphetamine, methamphetamine, THC, methylphenidate, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam and tramadol. Both the prison inmates and staff members reported breath testing to be preferable due to practical considerations. The results of this study documented that drug testing using exhaled breath provided as many positives as urine testing despite an expected shorter detection window, and that the breath sampling procedure was well accepted and provided practical benefits reported both by the prison inmates and testing personnel.
    Science & Justice 01/2013; · 1.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It has been discovered recently that exogenous substances are detectable in exhaled breath after intake. Exhaled breath therefore constitutes a new possible matrix in clinical pharmacology and toxicology. The present work was aimed at exploring this possibility further by a study on patients treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with D-amphetamine and methylphenidate. Thirteen patients (age range: 32-61 years; 5 women) were included in the study, and breath and urine samples were collected at different times in the dose interval. Analyses of breath and urine samples were done with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Urine was examined for amphetamine, methylphenidate, and its metabolite ritalinic acid. Among the 9 patients who received D-amphetamine medication in daily doses of 20-100 mg, amphetamine was detected in all subjects in amounts ranging from 1200 to 30,800 picogram per filter. Among 8 patients receiving methylphenidate medication in daily doses of 80-400 mg, it was detected and quantified in 7 of the cases in amounts ranging from 150 to 10,400 picogram per filter and ritalinic acid was detected and quantified in 3 of the cases ranging from 35 to 360 picogram per filter. In 1 case, methylphenidate was only detectable in breath and urine, whereas ritalinic acid was quantifiable in urine, which could indicate noncompliance, with the 4 hours of dose regimen prescribed. In a number of cases, the sampling was performed 24 hours after the last dose intake. Identification of amphetamine and methylphenidate was based on correct chromatographic retention time and correct product ion ratio with detection performed in selected reaction monitoring mode. The results confirm that amphetamine is present in exhaled breath after intake and demonstrate for the first time the presence of methylphenidate and ritalinic acid after its intake. This gives further support to the potential use of exhaled breath for detecting drug intake.
    Therapeutic drug monitoring 01/2014; · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Breath has been investigated as an alternative matrix for detecting recent cocaine intake; however, there are no controlled cocaine administration studies that investigated the drug's disposition into breath. Breath was collected from 10 healthy adult cocaine users by asking them to breathe into a SensAbues device for 3 min before and up to 22 h following 25 mg intravenous (IV) cocaine dosing on days 1, 5, and 10, and assayed with a validated liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method to quantify breath cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), and norcocaine. The assay was linear from 25 to 1,000 pg/filter, extraction efficiencies were 83.6-126 %, intra- and inter-assay imprecision was <10.6 %, and bias was between -8.5 and 16.8 %. No endogenous or exogenous interferences were observed for more than 75 tested. Analytes were generally stable under short-term storage conditions. Ion suppression was less than 46 %. Of breath specimens collected after controlled cocaine administration, 2.6 % were positive for cocaine (26.1-66 pg/filter, 1-9.5 h), 0.72 % BE (83.3-151 pg/filter, 6.5-12.5 h), and 0.72 % EME (50-69.1 pg/filter, 6.5-12.5 h); norcocaine was not detected. Methanolic extraction of the devices themselves, after filters were removed, yielded 19.2 % positive cocaine tests (25.2-36.4 pg/device, 10 min-22 h) and 4.3 % positive BE tests (26.4-93.7 pg/device, 10 min-22 h), explaining differences between the two extraction techniques. These results suggest that the device reflects the drug in oral fluid as well as lung microparticles, while the filter reflects only drug-laden microparticles. A sensitive and specific method for cocaine, BE, EME, and norcocaine quantification in breath was developed and validated. Cocaine in breath identifies recent cocaine ingestion, but its absence does not preclude recent use.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 08/2014; · 3.66 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
1 Download
Available from