Detection of free immunoglobulin light chains in cerebrospinal fluids of patients with central nervous system lymphomas.
ABSTRACT Diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma depends on histopathology of brain biopsies, because no reliable disease marker in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been identified yet. B-cell lymphomas such as CNS lymphomas are clonally restricted and express either kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chains. The aim of this study was to find out a potential diagnostic value of free immunoglobulin light chains released into the CSF of CNS lymphoma patients. Kappa (kappa) and lambda (lambda) free immunoglobulin light chains (FLC) were measured in CSF and serum samples collected from 21 patients with primary and secondary CNS lymphomas and 14 control patients with different neurologic disorders. FLC concentrations and ratios were compared between patient groups and were further analyzed in correlation with clinical, cytopathological, and radiological findings. FLC concentrations for all patients were lower in CSF when compared to serum. In patients with CNS lymphoma, the FLC ratios in CSF were higher (range 392-0.3) compared to control patients (range 3.0-0.3). Irrespective of cytopathological proven lymphomatous meningitis, in 11/21 lymphoma CSF samples the FLC ratios were markedly above 3.0 indicating a clonally restricted B-cell population. Increased FLC ratios in CSF were found in those patients showing subependymal lymphoma contact as detected in magnetic resonance imaging. In summary, this is the first report demonstrating that a significant proportion of patients with CNS lymphomas display a markedly increased FLC ratio in the CSF.
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ABSTRACT: Lymphomatous meningitis (LM) represents a severe complication of malignant lymphomas. While clinical suspicion is raised by symptoms ranging from mild disturbances of sensation to severe pain or impaired consciousness, the definite diagnosis of LM is often difficult to obtain. Since B-cell lymphomas are clonally restricted to express either kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chain, we hypothesised that analysis of free light chain (FLC) ratios might facilitate the diagnosis of LM. Kappa and lambda FLC were measured using a novel nephelometric assay in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from 17 patients. 5/17 suffered from LM as demonstrated by cytology, immunocytology, and/or imaging procedures. Measurement of FLC concentrations in CSF was achieved for all 17 patients. FLC levels in CSF were lower than serum FLC levels in samples for the same patient obtained at the same time (p < 0.01). CSF and serum FLC concentrations correlated weakly in all patients irrespective of LM status. Significantly more patients with cytopathologically and immunohistochemically proven LM displayed abnormal kappa/lambda FLC ratios in CSF compared to individuals with no LM (p < 0.01). This is the first report demonstrating that a significant proportion of LM patients display an abnormal kappa/lambda FLC ratio in the CSF.BMC Cancer 02/2007; 7:185. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to determine the diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) soluble CD27 (sCD27) as a tumor marker for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). We examined sCD27 levels in CSF obtained from various types of brain tumor patients. Forty-two patients were studied (including 12 PCNSL patients) who had not received any therapy for their tumors. In all PCNSL cases, CSF sCD27 levels were more than 15 U/ml (median 84.5 U/ml, range 17-484 U/ml) and in other brain tumor cases, CSF sCD27 levels were all less than 15 U/ml. Our data suggest that CSF sCD27 levels are useful to distinguish PCNSL from other brain tumors.Cancer Letters 11/1998; 132(1-2):181-6. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The expression of the T cell membrane molecule CD27--a molecule that has recently been shown to belong to the nerve growth factor receptor superfamily--is strongly increased after activation of T lymphocytes via the T cell receptor/CD3 complex. In addition, activated cells release a 28-32 kDa soluble form of CD27 in their supernatant which can also be detected in serum and urine of healthy individuals. In this study we show that levels of soluble (s) CD27 are significantly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and of patients and of suffering from other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND), whereas increased levels of sCD25 (soluble interleukin-2 receptor) were only found in CSF of patients with OIND. In MS patients, a significant correlation was found between CSF sCD27 titer and IgG index.Journal of Neuroimmunology 01/1992; 35(1-3):211-7. · 3.03 Impact Factor