Metal ion-binding properties of 9-[(2-phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]-2-aminopurine (PME2AP), an isomer of the antiviral nucleotide analogue 9-[(2-phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA). Steric guiding of metal ion-coordination by the purine-amino group.

Department of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, University of Basel, Spitalstrasse 51, CH-4056, Basel, Switzerland.
Dalton Transactions (Impact Factor: 3.81). 07/2010; 39(27):6344-54. DOI: 10.1039/c005238h
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The acidity constants of 3-fold protonated 9-[(2-phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]-2-aminopurine, H(3)(PME2AP)(+), and the stability constants of the M(H;PME2AP)(+) and M(PME2AP) complexes with M(2+) = Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) or Cd(2+) have been determined by potentiometric pH titrations in aqueous solution (25 degrees C; I = 0.1 M, NaNO(3)). It is concluded that in the M(H;PME2AP)(+) species, the proton is at the phosphonate group and the metal ion at N7 of the purine residue. This "open" form allows macrochelate formation of M(2+) with the monoprotonated phosphonate residue. The formation degree of this macrochelate amounts on average to 64 +/- 13% (3sigma) for those metal ions for which an evaluation was possible (Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+)). The identity of this formation degree indicates that the M(2+)/P(O)(2)(-)(OH) interaction occurs in an outersphere manner. The application of previously determined straight-line plots of log K(M)(M(R-PO(3)))versus pK(H)(H(R-PO(3))) for simple phosph(on)ate ligands, R-PO(3)(2-), where R represents a residue that does not affect metal ion binding, proves that all the M(PME2AP) complexes have larger stabilities than is expected for a sole phosphonate coordination of M(2+). Combination with previous results allows the following conclusions: (i) The increased stability of the M(PME2AP) complexes of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) is due to the formation of 5-membered chelates involving the ether-oxygen atom of the -CH(2)-O-CH(2)-PO(3)(2-) residue; the formation degrees of these M(PME2AP)(cl/O) chelates for the mentioned metal ions vary between about 25% (Ca(2+)) to 40% (Mn(2+)). (ii) For the M(PME2AP) complexes of Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) or Cd(2+) next to the mentioned 5-membered chelates a further isomer is formed, namely a macrochelate involving N7, M(PME2AP)(cl/N7). The formation degrees of these macrochelates vary between about 30% (Cd(2+)) and 85% (Ni(2+)). (iii) The most remarkable observation of this study is that the shift of the NH(2) group from C6 to C2 facilitates very significantly macrochelate formation of a PO(3)(2-)-coordinated M(2+) with N7 due to the removal of steric hindrance in the M(PME2AP) complexes. However, any M(2+) interaction with N3 is completely suppressed, thus leading to significantly different coordination patterns than those observed previously with the antivirally active PMEA(2-) species.

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    ABSTRACT: The acidity constants of twofold protonated, antivirally active, acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), H(2) (PE)(±) , where PE(2-) =9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA(2-) ), 2-amino-9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]purine (PME2AP(2-) ), 2,6-diamino-9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]purine (PMEDAP(2-) ), or 2-amino-6-(dimethylamino)-9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]purine (PME(2A6DMAP)(2-) ), as well as the stability constants of the corresponding ternary Cu(Arm)(H;PE)(+) and Cu(Arm)(PE) complexes, where Arm=2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), are compared. The constants for the systems containing PE(2-) =PMEDAP(2-) and PME(2A6DMAP)(2-) have been determined now by potentiometric pH titrations in aqueous solution at I=0.1M (NaNO(3) ) and 25°; the corresponding results for the other ANPs were taken from our earlier work. The basicity of the terminal phosphonate group is very similar for all the ANP(2-) species, whereas the addition of a second amino substituent at the pyrimidine ring of the purine moiety significantly increases the basicity of the N(1) site. Detailed stability-constant comparisons reveal that, in the monoprotonated ternary Cu(Arm)(H;PE)(+) complexes, the proton is at the phosphonate group, that the ether O-atom of the CH(2) OCH(2) P(O)$\rm{{_{2}^{-}}}$(OH) residue participates, next to the P(O)$\rm{{_{2}^{-}}}$(OH) group, to some extent in Cu(Arm)(2+) coordination, and that ππ stacking between the aromatic rings of Cu(Arm)(2+) and the purine moiety is rather important, especially for the H⋅PMEDAP(-) and H⋅PME(2A6DMAP)(-) ligands. There are indications that ternary Cu(Arm)(2+) -bridged stacks as well as unbridged (binary) stacks are formed. The ternary Cu(Arm)(PE) complexes are considerably more stable than the corresponding Cu(Arm)(RPO(3) ) species, where RPO$\rm{{_{3}^{2-}}}$ represents a phosph(on)ate ligand with a group R that is unable to participate in any kind of intramolecular interaction within the complexes. The observed stability enhancements are mainly attributed to intramolecular-stack formation in the Cu(Arm)(PE) complexes and also, to a smaller extent, to the formation of five-membered chelates involving the ether O-atom present in the CH(2) OCH(2) PO$\rm{{_{3}^{2-}}}$ residue of the PE(2-) species. The quantitative analysis of the intramolecular equilibria involving three structurally different Cu(Arm)(PE) isomers shows that, e.g., ca. 1.5% of the Cu(phen)(PMEDAP) system exist with Cu(phen)(2+) solely coordinated to the phosphonate group, 4.5% as a five-membered chelate involving the ether O-atom of the CH(2) OCH(2) PO$\rm{{_{3}^{2-}}}$ residue, and 94% with an intramolecular ππ stack between the purine moiety of PMEDAP(2-) and the aromatic rings of phen. Comparison of the various formation degrees of the species formed reveals that, in the Cu(phen)(PE) complexes, intramolecular-stack formation is more pronounced than in the Cu(bpy)(PE) species. Within a given Cu(Arm)(2+) series the stacking intensity increases in the order PME2AP(2-) <PMEA(2-) <PMEDAP(2-) <PME(2A6DMAP)(2-) . One could speculate that the reduced stacking intensity of PME2AP(2-) , together with a different H-bonding pattern, could well lead to a different orientation of the 2-aminopurine moiety (compared to the adenine residue) in the active site of nucleic acid polymerases and thus be responsible for the reduced antiviral activity of PME2AP compared with that of PMEA and the other ANPs containing a 6-amino substituent.
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