Ischemic stroke and secondary prevention in clinical practice: a cohort study of 14,529 patients in the Swedish Stroke Register.
ABSTRACT Secondary prevention is recommended after stroke, but adherence to guidelines is unknown. We studied the prescription of antiplatelet drugs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, statins, and anticoagulant drugs and their relation to risk of death.
Patients with first-ever ischemic stroke in 2005 were registered in the Swedish Stroke Register. Odds ratios, hazard ratios, and 95% CIs were calculated using logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Adjustments were performed for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, other drug therapies, and activities of daily living function.
In total, 14,529 patients with a mean age of 75.0 (+/-11.6) years were included. They were followed for 1.4 (+/-0.5) years: 52% had hypertension, 26% atrial fibrillation, 19% diabetes, and 15% were smokers. The odds ratio for prescription of antiplatelet was 2.20 (95% CI, 1.86 to 2.60) among the oldest patients (>or=85 years of age) compared with the youngest (18 to 64 years of age). The corresponding odds ratio was 0.38 (0.32 to 0.45) for prescriptions of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, 0.09 (0.08 to 0.11) for statins, and 0.07 (0.05 to 0.09) for anticoagulant therapy. Prescription of statin and anticoagulant therapy was associated with reduced risk of death (hazard ratio, 0.78 [0.65 to 0.91] and hazard ratio, 0.58 [0.44 to 0.76], respectively) but not the prescription of antiplatelet drugs or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
The prescription of antiplatelet, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, statins, and anticoagulant therapy was strongly age related. Statin and anticoagulant therapy was associated with reduced risk of death and seemed to be underused among elderly patients. These findings should encourage physicians to follow today's guidelines for stroke care.
Article: Secondary stroke prevention.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Survivors of stroke and transient ischaemic attacks are at risk of a recurrent stroke, which is often more severe and disabling than the index event. Optimum secondary prevention of recurrent stroke needs rapid diagnosis and treatment and prompt identification of the underlying cardiovascular cause. Effective treatments include organised acute assessment and intervention with antithrombotic therapy, carotid revascularisation, and control of causal risk factors, as appropriate. However, effective treatments are not implemented optimally in clinical practice. Recurrent strokes continue to account for 25-30% of all strokes and represent unsuccessful secondary prevention. Immediate and sustained implementation of effective and appropriate secondary prevention strategies in patients with first-ever stroke or transient ischaemic attack has the potential to reduce the burden of stroke by up to a quarter.The Lancet Neurology 12/2013; · 23.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: To identify the effects of a brief educational intervention on stroke patients' recall and recognition of risk factors and performance of and stage of change for stroke risk-related behaviors. Methods: Sixty-six patients with stroke participated in a multisite randomized controlled trial. The intervention group (n = 35) received a brief education intervention (tailored written stroke information, verbal reinforcement of information for 3 months after discharge, and provision of a telephone number). The control group (n = 31) received usual care. Unprompted recall (personal and general), prompted recognition of risk factors (0-13), and performance of (0-10) and stage of change for up to 7 stroke risk-related behaviors were assessed before and 3 months after discharge. Results: No significant between-group differences were found. For all participants over time, there were significant improvements for personal (mean difference [MD], 0.3; 95% CI, 0.004-0.69; P = .05) and general (MD, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.09-1.16; P = .02) risk factor recall; performance of stroke risk-related behaviors (MD, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.28-1.26; P < .01); and progression from a nonaction to an action stage of change for 4 of 7 behaviors over time. There was a significant decline in total risk factor recognition scores (MD, -0.8; 95% CI, 0.39-1.13; P < .01). Conclusion: Stroke patients' unprompted recall of risk factors and performance of risk-related behaviors improved over time; readiness to change risk-related behaviors progressed for some behaviors. A brief educational intervention did not improve risk factor awareness or behavior change more than usual care.Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation 01/2014; 21 Suppl 1:S52-62. · 0.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Statins, due to their well-established pleiotropic effects, have noteworthy benefits in stroke prevention. Despite this, a significant proportion of high-risk patients still do not receive the recommended therapeutic regimens, and many others discontinue treatment after being started on them. The causes of non-adherence to current guidelines are multifactorial, and depend on both physicians and patients. The aim of this study is to identify the factors influencing statin prescription at Stroke Unit (SU) discharge. This study included 12,750 patients enrolled on the web-based Lombardia Stroke Registry (LRS) from July 2009 to April 2012 and discharged alive, with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and without contra-indication to statin therapy. By logistic regression analysis and classification trees, we evaluated the impact of demographic data, risk factors, tPA treatment, in-hospital procedures and complications on statin prescription rate at discharge. We observed a slight increase in statins prescription during the study period (from 39.1 to 43.9%). Lower age, lower stroke severity and prestroke disability, the presence of atherothrombotic/lacunar risk factors, a diagnosis of non-cardioembolic stroke, tPA treatment, the absence of in-hospital complications, with the sole exception of hypertensive fits and hyperglycemia, were the patient-related predictors of adherence to guidelines by physicians. Overall, dyslipidemia appears as the leading factor, while TOAST classification does not reach statistical significance. In our region, Lombardia, adherence to guidelines in statin prescription at Stroke Unit discharge is very different from international goals. The presence of dyslipidemia remains the main factor influencing statin prescription, while the presence of well-defined atherosclerotic etiopathogenesis of stroke does not enhance statin prescription. Some uncertainties about the risk/benefit of statin therapy in stroke etiology subtypes (cardioembolism, other or undetermined causes) may partially justify the underuse of statin in ischemic stroke. The differences that exist between current international guidelines may prevent a more widespread use of statin and should be clarified in a consensus.BMC Neurology 03/2014; 14(1):53. · 2.56 Impact Factor