Ischemic Stroke and Secondary Prevention in Clinical Practice A Cohort Study of 14 529 Patients in the Swedish Stroke Register
ABSTRACT Secondary prevention is recommended after stroke, but adherence to guidelines is unknown. We studied the prescription of antiplatelet drugs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, statins, and anticoagulant drugs and their relation to risk of death.
Patients with first-ever ischemic stroke in 2005 were registered in the Swedish Stroke Register. Odds ratios, hazard ratios, and 95% CIs were calculated using logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Adjustments were performed for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, other drug therapies, and activities of daily living function.
In total, 14,529 patients with a mean age of 75.0 (+/-11.6) years were included. They were followed for 1.4 (+/-0.5) years: 52% had hypertension, 26% atrial fibrillation, 19% diabetes, and 15% were smokers. The odds ratio for prescription of antiplatelet was 2.20 (95% CI, 1.86 to 2.60) among the oldest patients (>or=85 years of age) compared with the youngest (18 to 64 years of age). The corresponding odds ratio was 0.38 (0.32 to 0.45) for prescriptions of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, 0.09 (0.08 to 0.11) for statins, and 0.07 (0.05 to 0.09) for anticoagulant therapy. Prescription of statin and anticoagulant therapy was associated with reduced risk of death (hazard ratio, 0.78 [0.65 to 0.91] and hazard ratio, 0.58 [0.44 to 0.76], respectively) but not the prescription of antiplatelet drugs or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
The prescription of antiplatelet, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, statins, and anticoagulant therapy was strongly age related. Statin and anticoagulant therapy was associated with reduced risk of death and seemed to be underused among elderly patients. These findings should encourage physicians to follow today's guidelines for stroke care.
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ABSTRACT: Although nonadherence with evidence-based secondary prevention medications is common in patients with established atherothrombotic disease, long-term outcomes studies are scant. We assessed the prevalence and long-term outcomes of nonadherence to secondary prevention (antiplatelet agents, statins, and antihypertensive agents) medications in stable outpatients with established atherothrombosis (coronary, cerebrovascular, or peripheral artery disease) enrolled in the international REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health registry.Methods Adherence with these medications in eligible patients at baseline and 1-year follow-up was assessed. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 4 years.ResultsA total of 37,154 patients with established atherothrombotic disease were included. Adherence rates with all evidence-based medications at baseline and 1 year were 46.7% and 48.2%, respectively. Nonadherence with any medication at baseline (hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.25) and at 1 year (hazard ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.28) were both significantly associated with an increased risk of the primary end point. The risk of all-cause mortality was similarly elevated. Corresponding numbers needed to treat were 31 and 25 patients for the composite end point and total mortality, respectively. This also was true for each disease-specific subgroup. Patients who were fully adherent at both time points had the lowest incidence of adverse outcomes, whereas patients who were nonadherent at both time points had the worst outcomes (P < .01).Conclusions Our analysis of a large international registry demonstrates that nonadherence with evidence-based secondary prevention therapies in patients with established atherothrombosis is associated with a significant increase in long-term adverse events, including mortality.The American Journal of Medicine 08/2013; 126(8):693-700.e1. DOI:10.1016/j.amjmed.2013.01.033 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%-15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more precise epidemiologic data. Given the increasing incidence of stroke in the young, there is an objective need for more research in order to reduce this burden.Vascular Health and Risk Management 02/2015; 11:157-164. DOI:10.2147/VHRM.S53203
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ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cause of devastating but potentially preventable stroke. Estimates of the prevalence of AF among patients with stroke vary considerably because of difficulties in detection of intermittent, silent AF. Better recognition of AF in this patient group may help to identify and offer protection to individuals at risk. Our aim was to determine the nationwide prevalence of AF among patients with ischemic stroke, as well as their use of oral anticoagulation.Stroke 07/2014; 45(9). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.006070 · 6.02 Impact Factor