Medicinal plants have been shown to have both chemopreventive and/or therapeutic effects on cancer and other diseases related to oxidative damage. Moringa oleifera Lam., known in the Hausa and Igala languages of Nigeria as "Zogale" and "Gergedi," respectively, and drumstick in English, is a plant that is used both as food and in folkloric medicine in Nigeria and elsewhere. Different parts of the plant were analyzed for polyphenol content as well as in vitro antioxidant potential. The methanol extract of the leaves of M. oleifera contained chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin glucoside, and kaempferol rhamnoglucoside, whereas in the root and stem barks, several procyanidin peaks were detected. With the xanthine oxidase model system, all the extracts exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 16, 30, and 38 microL for the roots, leaves, and stem bark, respectively. Similarly, potent radical scavenging capacity was observed when extracts were evaluated with the 2-deoxyguanosine assay model system, with IC(50) values of 40, 58, and 72 microL for methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks, respectively. The high antioxidant/radical scavenging effects observed for different parts of M. oleifera appear to provide justification for their widespread therapeutic use in traditional medicine in different continents. The possibility that this high antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity may impact on the cancer chemopreventive potential of the plant must be considered.
"This was fairly low but significantly different from that of the reference standard (2.10 µg/mL). The observed result was similar to the findings of Atawodi et al. (2010). The DPPH radical is one of the few stable organic nitrogen radicals, with a deep purple colour. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Moringa oleifera, a plant with a wide range of medicinal, nutritional and economic benefits was examined for phytochemicals and evaluated for antioxidant activities. Phytochemical tests, total phenol and flavonoid contents were determined using standard procedures. Antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts and fractions were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging assay. The leaf and seed contained alkaloids, saponins, phenols and flavonoids. The ethyl acetate fraction of the leaf contained significantly (P < 0.05) more phenol (78.67 ± 3.40 mgGAE/g Extract) than the crude extract and petroleum ether fraction with total phenolic content of 58.00 ± 1.00 and 26.17 ± 3.88 mg GAE/g Extract respectively while the seed extract had a total phenol content of 17.67 ± 2.02 mg GAE/g Extract. The petroleum ether fraction of the leaf was found to contain significantly (P < 0.05) more flavonoid (161.33 ± 19.05 mgQE/g Extract) than the other samples (31.73 ± 2.66, 30.20 ± 10.14 and 20.73 ± 4.16 mgQE/g Extract for the crude leaf extract, leaf petroleum ether fraction and seed extract respectively). The leaf and seed extracts exhibited remarkable and concentration-dependent increase in radical scavenging activities with IC50 values ranging from 5.72-42.56 μg/mL. The results therefore support the use of Moringa oleifera as a natural plant antioxidant by preventing free radical damage.
"Studies have attributed the medicinal benefits of M. oleifera to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antipathogenic constituents [10, 11]. Also, the strong antioxidant and scavenging ability of M. oleifera has been linked to chemoprevention of diseases like cancer . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity.
Journal of nutrition and metabolism 09/2014; 2014:958621. DOI:10.1155/2014/958621
"Polyphenols, A, C, E vitamins, zinc and selenium in M. oleifera powder (Nandave et al., 2009; Atawodi et al., 2010; Moyo et al., 2012) by reducing oxydative stress (Metha & Fawzi, 2007; Tété-Bénissan et al., 2012), contributed to increase activation of LCAT and hepatic lipase enzymes by reduction of cytokins (IL-1 and TNF) which accelerating lipolysis of triglycerides-rich particles and raising HDL-C quantity. This would increase reverse transport of free cholesterol by HDL from peripheral cells towards liver where it will be metabolized. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT
Objectives: The study evaluated mineral composition of “togolese ecotype” of Moringa oleifera leaves and its effect on anthropometric parameters, atherogenic lipids and glycaemia during nutritional recovery in HIV negative and HIV positive malnourished patients after daily use of leaves powder.
Methodology and results: Patients aged from 12 months to 8 years, consumed every day during 15 weeks leaves powder. Results showed that powder is rich in proteins, micronutrients and induced BMI increase in both patients (p ≤ 0.001). Biochemical parameters determination showed decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol (p≤0.01), atherogenicity index (AI) correlated with HDL-cholesterol increase (p≤0.001) in HIV negative. Increase in triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, AI (p≤0.001) correlated with HDL-cholesterol decrease (p≤0.001) is observed in HIV positive. Total cholesterol decreased more in HIV positive asymptomatic and increased in patients treated with ARV drugs (p≤0.0001). Glycaemia level is decreased in both patients of the study.
Conclusion and application of findings: This study confirms higher concentrations of proteins, micronutrients, hypolipidemic potential and hypocholesterolemic activity of M. oleifera leaves. This explained nutritional recovery and reduction of atherogenic lipids. Positive effect of the powder on cholesterol metabolism is due to beta-sitosterol, bioactive phytoconstituent of the leaves which fixed LDL particles and thought to be through the lowering significantly of their plasma concentrations. Reduction of glycaemia in both patients confirms also hypoglycemic properties of leaves with high concentration of polyphenols and antioxydants. The lowering of atherogenic risk and glycaemia after regular consumption of M. oleifera leaves powder is more significant in HIV negative than HIV positive patients. Results of this study bring information which will make it possible to pediatrics and nutritionists to adapt better use of M. oleifera leaves to combat malnutrition and the follow-up of HIV positive, particular those which have antiretroviral treatment.
Key words: Moringa oleifera, malnutrition, atherogenic lipids, glycaemia, HIV/AIDS
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