Non-Organ-Specific Preventive Effect of Long-Term Administration of Korean Red Ginseng Extract on Incidence of Human Cancers
ABSTRACT Previously, two case-control studies and a cohort study strongly suggested that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer exerted non-organ-specific preventive effects against cancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of red ginseng extract on the incidence of human primary cancer. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial on 643 chronic atrophic gastritis patients in four hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China. Red ginseng extract powder (1 g) was administered orally to each patient per week for 3 years and followed up for 8 years. The development of various cancers in the red ginseng subjects was compared to that of a placebo group. The red ginseng extract powder was specified in terms of its components. Twenty-four cancers of various organs were diagnosed from these subjects during the 11 years: eight lung cancers, six stomach cancers, two liver cancers, two colorectal cancers, and one cancer each of the nasopharynx, esophagus, pancreas, urinary bladder, prostate, and gallbladder. The red ginseng group, which included both genders, demonstrated a relative cancer risk of 0.54 (95% confidence interval, 0.23-1.28; P = .13) compared to the placebo group, which was not statistically significant. Among the 24 cancer patients, 21 were male. The male red ginseng group showed a relative cancer risk of 0.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.96; P = .03) compared to the male placebo group, which was highly significant statistically. In the present clinical trial on chronic atrophic gastritis patients, administration of red ginseng extract powder for 3 years exerted significant preventive effects on the incidence of non-organ-specific human cancers in males.
Article: Nutritional supplements[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A dietary supplement, also known as a food supplement or nutritional supplement, is a preparation intended to supplement the diet and provide nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, fiber, fatty acids, or amino acids. A health functional food is a food where one or more new ingredients have been added to a food and the new product has an additional function. Physicians and patients need information on current evidence on the efficacy and safety of selected dietary supplements that are commonly used. The current evidence on the efficacy and safety of selected dietary supplements (beta-carotene, vitamin C, D, E, calcium, selenium, omega 3, ginseng, glucosamine, chlorella, saw palmetto, gingko, gamma linolenic acid, echinacea) for specific conditions is assessed by an evidence-based approach. With an increase in income and the aging of the population, spending on dietary supplements is steadily increasing, but concern about the safety and efficacy of dietary supplements may be relatively low. Recently, many domestic and international clinical trials on nutritional supplements have been performed. As a result, the evidence on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements may be changed or recommendations may also be changed. Greater efforts should be made to acquire the latest knowledge about dietary supplements.Journal of the Korean Medical Association 09/2012; 55(9):889. DOI:10.5124/jkma.2012.55.9.889 · 0.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha or Indian ginseng) is a small woody shrub or herb of the Solanaceae family. Ashwagandha is an herb which can compare favourably to the world's most renowned herbal tonics such as ginseng (Panax ginseng), astragalus (Astragalus membranaceus) and South American suma (Pfaffia paniculata). All these have been held in high regard for its ability to increase vitality, energy, endurance and stamina. Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) is used in China as a preventative tonic to stimulate the entire body to overcome stress, fatigue and weakness. It contains 13 different ginsenosides. Panaxans help to lower blood sugar, polysaccharides work to enhance the immune system and its antioxidant properties are immune-stimulating to protect the body from disease and stress. It balances the release of stress hormones by supporting the organs that produce them. This article investigates the therapeutic and clinical effects of Indian and Korean ginseng.International Journal of Immunological Studies 01/2011; 1(3):297 - 317. DOI:10.1504/IJIS.2011.041727
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ABSTRACT: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a well-known toxic gas with the characteristic smell of rotten eggs. It is synthesized endogenously in mammals from the sulfur-containing amino acid L-cysteine by the action of several distinct enzymes: cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-ß-synthase (CBS), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) along with cysteine aminotransferase (CAT). In particular, CSE is considered to be the major H2S-producing enzyme in the cardiovascular system. As the third gasotransmitter next to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), H2S plays an important role in the regulation of vasodilation, angiogenesis, inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Growing evidence has demonstrated that this gas exerts a significant protective effect against the progression of cardiovascular diseases by a number of mechanisms such as vasorelaxation, inhibition of cardiovascular remodeling and resistance to form foam cells. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the physiological functions of H2S and its protection against several major cardiovascular diseases, and to explore its potential health and therapeutic benefits. A better understanding will help develop novel H2S-based therapeutic interventions for these diseases.Clinica Chimica Acta 07/2014; 437. DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2014.07.012 · 2.76 Impact Factor