B cells as therapeutic targets in SLE.
ABSTRACT The use of B-cell targeted therapies for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has generated great interest owing to the multiple pathogenic roles carried out by B cells in this disease. Strong support for targeting B cells is provided by genetic, immunological and clinical observations that place these cells at the center of SLE pathogenesis, as initiating, amplifying and effector cells. Interest in targeting B cells has also been fostered by the successful use of similar interventions to treat other autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, and by the initial promise shown by B-cell depletion to treat SLE in early studies. Although the initial high enthusiasm has been tempered by negative results from phase III trials of the B-cell-depleting agent rituximab in SLE, renewed vigor should be instilled in the field by the convergence of the latest results using agents that inhibit B-cell-activating factor (BAFF, also known as BLyS and tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily, member 13b), further analysis of data from trials using rituximab and greatly improved understanding of B-cell biology. Combined, the available information identifies several new avenues for the therapeutic targeting of B cells in SLE.
09/2014; 5(2):33-45. DOI:10.1007/s13317-014-0058-y
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ABSTRACT: B cells are central players in multiple autoimmune rheumatic diseases as a result of the imbalance between pathogenic and protective B-cell functions, which are presumably mediated by distinct populations. Yet the functional role of different B-cell populations and the contribution of specific subsets to disease pathogenesis remain to be fully understood owing to a large extent to the use of pauci-color flow cytometry. Despite its limitations, this approach has been instrumental in providing a global picture of multiple B-cell abnormalities in multiple human rheumatic diseases, more prominently systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren's syndrome. Accordingly, these studies represent the focus of this review. In addition, we also discuss the added value of tapping into the potential of polychromatic flow cytometry to unravel a higher level of B-cell heterogeneity, provide a more nuanced view of B-cell abnormalities in disease and create the foundation for a precise understanding of functional division of labor among the different phenotypic subsets. State-of-the-art polychromatic flow cytometry and novel multidimensional analytical approaches hold tremendous promise for our understanding of disease pathogenesis, the generation of disease biomarkers, patient stratification and personalized therapeutic approaches.
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ABSTRACT: Understanding how viruses subvert host immunity and persist is essential for developing strategies to eliminate infection. T cell exhaustion during chronic viral infection is well described, but effects on antibody-mediated effector activity are unclear. Herein, we show that increased amounts of immune complexes generated in mice persistently infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) suppressed multiple Fcγ-receptor (FcγR) functions. The high amounts of immune complexes suppressed antibody-mediated cell depletion, therapeutic antibody-killing of LCMV infected cells and human CD20-expressing tumors, as well as reduced immune complex-mediated cross-presentation to T cells. Suppression of FcγR activity was not due to inhibitory FcγRs or high concentrations of free antibody, and proper FcγR functions were restored when persistently infected mice specifically lacked immune complexes. Thus, we identify a mechanism of immunosuppression during viral persistence with implications for understanding effective antibody activity aimed at pathogen control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Immunity 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2015.01.005 · 19.75 Impact Factor