The transcriptional coactivator DRIP/mediator complex is involved in vitamin D receptor function and regulates keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation.
ABSTRACT Mediator is a multisubunit coactivator complex that facilitates transcription of nuclear receptors. We investigated the role of the mediator complex as a coactivator for vitamin D receptor (VDR) in keratinocytes. Using VDR affinity beads, the vitamin D receptor interacting protein (DRIP)/mediator complex was purified from primary keratinocytes, and its subunit composition was determined by mass spectrometry. The complex included core subunits, such as DRIP205/MED1 (MED1), that directly binds to VDR. Additional subunits were identified that are components of the RNA polymerase II complex. The functions of different mediator components were investigated by silencing its subunits. The core subunit MED1 facilitates VDR activity and regulating keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. A newly described subunit MED21 also has a role in promoting keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, whereas MED10 has an inhibitory role. Blocking MED1/MED21 expression caused hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, accompanied by increases in mRNA expression of the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 and/or glioma-associated oncogene homolog. Blocking MED1 or MED21 expression also resulted in defects in calcium-induced keratinocyte differentiation, as indicated by decreased expression of differentiation markers and decreased translocation of E-cadherin to the membrane. These results show that keratinocytes use the transcriptional coactivator mediator to regulate VDR functions and control keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation.
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ABSTRACT: Disruption of the gene encoding for the transcription coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-binding protein (PBP/TRAP220/DRIP205/Med1) in the mouse results in embryonic lethality. Here, we have reported that targeted disruption of the Pbp/Pparbp gene in hepatocytes (Pbp(DeltaLiv)) impairs liver regeneration with low survival after partial hepatectomy. Analysis of cell cycle progression suggests a defective exit from quiescence, reduced BrdUrd incorporation, and diminished entry into G(2)/M phase in Pbp(DeltaLiv) hepatocytes after partial hepatectomy. Pbp(DeltaLiv) hepatocytes failed to respond to hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, implying that hepatic PBP deficiency affects c-met signaling. Pbp gene disruption also abolishes primary mitogen-induced liver cell proliferative response. Striking abrogation of CCl(4)-induced hepatocellular proliferation and hepatotoxicity occurred in Pbp(DeltaLiv) mice pretreated with phenobarbital due to lack of expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes necessary for CCl(4) activation. Pbp(DeltaLiv) mice, chronically exposed to Wy-14,643, a PPARalpha ligand, revealed a striking proliferative response and clonal expansion of a few Pbp(fl/fl) hepatocytes that escaped Cre-mediated gene deletion in Pbp(DeltaLiv) livers, but no proliferative expansion of PBP null hepatocytes was observed. In these Pbp(DeltaLiv) mice, none of the Wy-14,643-induced hepatic adenomas and hepatocellular carcinomas was derived from PBP(DeltaLiv) hepatocytes; all liver tumors developing in Pbp(DeltaLiv) mice maintained non-recombinant Pbp alleles and retained PBP expression. These studies provide direct evidence in support of a critical role of PBP/TRAP220 in liver regeneration, induction of hepatotoxicity, and hepatocarcinogenesis.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2007; 282(23):17053-60. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The steroid hormone 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. Intracellular calcium (Cai) concentrations play a crucial role in these events. From our previous studies, we have demonstrated a calcium receptor (CaR) in keratinocytes which appears to regulate the initial release of Cai from intracellular stores in response to extracellular calcium (Cao) and so is likely to participate in the differentiation process. In this study, we determined whether the ability of 1,25(OH)2D3 to enhance Ca++ -induced differentiation was mediated at least in part through changes in the CaR. Keratinocytes were grown in keratinocyte growth medium (KGM) with 0.03 mM, 0.1 mM, or 1.2 mM Ca and treated with 10(-8) M 1,25(OH)2D3 till harvest after 5, 7, 14, and 21 days. CaR mRNA levels were quantitated by polymerase chain reaction. The results were compared to the ability of 1,25(OH)2D3 to enhance calcium-stimulated increases in Cai. In cells grown in 0.03 mM Ca, the CaR mRNA levels decreased with time. 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulated the levels at 5 days and prevented the falloff over the subsequent 16 days. On the other hand, in cells grown in 0.1 or 1.2 mM Ca, the message levels remained high, and 1,25(OH)2D3 had no further effect. To study the functional relationship, we harvested cells after 5 and 7 days in culture following a 24 h treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 or vehicle to measure the Cai response to 2 mM Cao. The preconfluent cells grown in 0.03 mM Ca showed a nearly twofold increase in the Cai response to Cao when pretreated with 1,25(OH)2D3, whereas the confluent cells and those grown in 1.2 mM Ca showed no enhancement by 1,25(OH)2D3. Studies with 45Ca influx into keratinocytes revealed that 1,25(OH)2D3 enhanced the influx in preconfluent and confluent cells when grown in KGM containing 0.03 mM Ca but not in cells grown in 1.2 mM calcium. We conclude that 1,25(OH)2D3 maintains the CaR mRNA levels in cells grown in 0.03 mM Ca, thus maintaining their responsiveness to Cao and so ensuring their ability to differentiate in response to the calcium signal.Journal of Cellular Physiology 03/1999; 178(2):188-96. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The beta-catenin signaling pathway is deregulated in nearly all colon cancers. Nonhypercalcemic vitamin D3 (1alpha,25-dehydroxyvitamin D(3)) analogues are candidate drugs to treat this neoplasia. We show that these compounds promote the differentiation of human colon carcinoma SW480 cells expressing vitamin D receptors (VDRs) (SW480-ADH) but not that of a malignant subline (SW480-R) or metastasic derivative (SW620) cells lacking VDR. 1alpha,25(OH)2D(3) induced the expression of E-cadherin and other adhesion proteins (occludin, Zonula occludens [ZO]-1, ZO-2, vinculin) and promoted the translocation of beta-catenin, plakoglobin, and ZO-1 from the nucleus to the plasma membrane. Ligand-activated VDR competed with T cell transcription factor (TCF)-4 for beta-catenin binding. Accordingly, 1alpha,25(OH)2D(3) repressed beta-catenin-TCF-4 transcriptional activity. Moreover, VDR activity was enhanced by ectopic beta-catenin and reduced by TCF-4. Also, 1alpha,25(OH)2D(3) inhibited expression of beta-catenin-TCF-4-responsive genes, c-myc, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, Tcf-1, and CD44, whereas it induced expression of ZO-1. Our results show that 1alpha,25(OH)2D(3) induces E-cadherin and modulates beta-catenin-TCF-4 target genes in a manner opposite to that of beta-catenin, promoting the differentiation of colon carcinoma cells.The Journal of Cell Biology 08/2001; 154(2):369-87. · 10.82 Impact Factor