Short-term effectiveness of different volume replacement therapies in postoperative hypovolaemic patients
ABSTRACT To examine the kinetics of volume loading with crystalloid and colloid infusions in critically ill patients after major surgery, using the pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) monitoring technique.
This prospective, randomized, multicentre study of 11 ICUs involved 200 mixed postoperative hypovolaemic patients (50 patients per group) in Hungary. Patients received 10 ml kg of lactated Ringer's solution, succinylated gelatin 4% w/v, 130/0.4 hydroxyethyl starch 6% w/v (HES) or human albumin 5% w/v over 30 min. A complete haemodynamic profile was obtained at 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after baseline. The peak haemodynamic effects, the 120 min changes compared with baseline, the area under the curve (AUC) for the haemodynamic parameters over 120 min and the haemodilution effect of the solutions were analysed. The primary outcome was to compare the AUCs and the secondary outcome was to evaluate the haemodynamic changes at 120 min.
There were significant differences in the AUCs of the haemodynamic parameters between colloids and lactated Ringer's solution in the cardiac index and global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI); human albumin vs. lactated Ringer's solution in stroke volume variation (SVV); and succinylated gelatin, HES vs. lactated Ringer's solution in the oxygen delivery index (DO2I). Colloid infusions (mainly HES and human albumin) at 120 min caused significant changes in central venous pressure, cardiac index, GEDVI, SVV, DO2I and central venous oxygen saturation compared with baseline. The haemodilution effect was significantly greater in colloids vs. lactated Ringer's solution.
In postoperative hypovolaemic patients, lactated Ringer's solution can significantly improve haemodynamics at the end of volume loading, but this effect completely disappears at 120 min. Ten millilitres per kilogram of colloid bolus (especially HES) improved the haemodynamics at 120 min; however, this was by only 5-25% compared with baseline. The colloids caused significantly larger AUCs than lactated Ringer's solution, but only in the cardiac index, GEDVI and DO2I, plus human albumin in the SVV.
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ABSTRACT: Fluid resuscitation is essential for the survival of critically ill patients in shock, regardless of the origin of shock. A number of crystalloids and colloids (synthetic and natural) are currently available, and there is strong controversy regarding which type of fluid should be administered and the potential adverse effects associated with the use of these products, especially the development of renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy. Recently, several clinical trials and metaanalyses have suggested the use of hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.4) to be associated with an increased risk of death and kidney failure, and data have been obtained showing clinical benefit with the use of crystalloids that contain a lesser concentration of sodium and chlorine than normal saline. This new information has increased uncertainty among clinicians regarding which type of fluid should be used. We therefore have conducted a review of the literature with a view to developing practical recommendations on the use of fluids in the resuscitation phase in critically ill adults.Medicina Intensiva 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.medin.2014.12.007 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fluid management during critical illness is a dynamic process that may be conceptualized as occurring in four phases: rescue, optimization, stabilization, and de-escalation (mobilization). The selection and administration of resuscitation fluids is one component of this complex physiological sequence directed at restoring depleted intravascular volume. Presently, the selection of i.v. fluid is usually dictated more by local practice patterns than by evidence. The debate on fluid choice has primarily focused on evaluating outcome differences between 'crystalloids vs colloids'. More recently, however, there is interest in examining outcome differences based on the chloride content of crystalloid solutions. New insights into the conventional Starling model of microvascular fluid exchange may explain that the efficacy of colloids in restoring and maintaining depleted intravascular volume is only moderately better than crystalloids. A number of investigator-initiated, high-quality, randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that modest improvements in short-term physiological endpoints with colloids have not translated into better patient-centred outcomes. In addition, there is substantial evidence that certain types of fluids may independently worsen patient-centred outcomes. These include hydroxyethyl starch and albumin solutions in selected patient populations. There is no evidence to support the use of other colloids. The use of balanced salt solutions in preference to 0.9% saline is supported by the absence of harm in large observational studies. However, there is no compelling randomized trial-based evidence demonstrating improved clinical outcomes with the use of balanced salt solutions compared with 0.9% saline at this time.BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 11/2014; 113(5):772-83. DOI:10.1093/bja/aeu301 · 4.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the later stages of circulatory shock, monitoring should help to avoid fluid overload. In this setting, volume expansion is ideally indicated only for patients in whom the cardiac index (CI) is expected to increase. Crystalloids are usually the choice for fluid replacement. As previous studies evaluating the hemodynamic effect of crystalloids have not distinguished responders from non-responders, the present study was designed to evaluate the duration of the hemodynamic effects of crystalloids according to the fluid responsiveness status. This is a prospective observational study conducted after the initial resuscitation phase of circulatory shock (>6 h vasopressor use). Critically ill, sedated adult patients monitored with a pulmonary artery catheter who received a fluid challenge with crystalloids (500 mL infused over 30 min) were included. Hemodynamic variables were measured at baseline (T0) and at 30 min (T1), 60 min (T2), and 90 min (T3) after a fluid bolus, totaling 90 min of observation. The patients were analyzed according to their fluid responsiveness status (responders with CI increase >15% and non-responders ≤15% at T1). The data were analyzed by repeated measures of analysis of variance. Twenty patients were included, 14 of whom had septic shock. Overall, volume expansion significantly increased the CI: 3.03 ± 0.64 L/min/m(2) to 3.58 ± 0.66 L/min/m(2) (p < 0.05). From this period, there was a progressive decrease: 3.23 ± 0.65 L/min/m(2) (p < 0.05, T2 versus T1) and 3.12 ± 0.64 L/min/m(2) (p < 0.05, period T3 versus T1). Similar behavior was observed in responders (13 patients), 2.84 ± 0.61 L/min/m(2) to 3.57 ± 0.65 L/min/m(2) (p < 0.05) with volume expansion, followed by a decrease, 3.19 ± 0.69 L/min/m(2) (p < 0.05, T2 versus T1) and 3.06 ± 0.70 L/min/m(2) (p < 0.05, T3 versus T1). Blood pressure and cardiac filling pressures also decreased significantly after T1 with similar findings in both responders and non-responders. The results suggest that volume expansion with crystalloids in patients with circulatory shock after the initial resuscitation has limited success, even in responders.01/2014; 4(1):25. DOI:10.1186/s13613-014-0025-9