An insect multiligand recognition protein functions as an opsonin for the phagocytosis of microorganisms.
ABSTRACT We characterize a novel pathogen recognition protein obtained from the lepidopteran Galleria mellonella. This protein recognizes Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, and Candida albicans via specific binding to lipopolysaccharides, lipoteichoic acid, and beta-1,3-glucan, respectively. As a multiligand receptor capable of coping with a broad variety of invading pathogens, it is constitutively produced in the fat body, midgut, and integument but not in the hemocytes and is secreted into the hemolymph. The protein was confirmed to be relevant to cellular immune response and to further function as an opsonin that promotes the uptake of invading microorganisms into hemocytes. Our data reveal that the mechanism by which a multiligand receptor recognizes microorganisms contributes substantially to their phagocytosis by hemocytes. A better understanding of an opsonin with the required repertoire for detecting diverse invaders might provide us with critical insights into the mechanisms underlying insect phagocytosis.
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ABSTRACT: Insect gut immunity is the first line of defense against oral infection. Although a few immune-related molecules in insect intestine has been identified by genomics or proteomics approach with comparison to well-studied tissues, such as hemolymph or fat body, our knowledge about the molecular mechanism underlying the gut immunity which would involve a variety of unidentified molecules is still limited. To uncover additional molecules that might take part in pathogen recognition, signal transduction or immune regulation in insect intestine, a T7 phage display cDNA library of the silkworm midgut is constructed. By use of different ligands for biopanning, Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) has been selected. BmTCTP is produced in intestinal epithelial cells and released into the gut lumen. The protein level of BmTCTP increases at the early time points during oral microbial infection and declines afterwards. In vitro binding assay confirms its activity as a multi-ligand binding molecule and it can further function as an opsonin that promotes the phagocytosis of microorganisms. Moreover, it can induce the production of anti-microbial peptide via a signaling pathway in which ERK is required and a dynamic tyrosine phosphorylation of certain cytoplasmic membrane protein. Taken together, our results characterize BmTCTP as a dual-functional protein involved in both the cellular and the humoral immune response of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e69284. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0069284 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Galleria mellonella has emerged as a potential invertebrate model for scrutinizing innate immunity. Larvae are easy to handle in host-pathogen assays. We undertook proteomics research in order to understand immune response in a heterologous host when challenged with microconidia of Fusarium oxysporum. The aim of this study was to investigate hemolymph proteins that were differentially expressed between control and immunized larvae sets, tested with F. oxysporum at two temperatures. The iTRAQ approach allowed us to observe the effects of immune challenges in a lucid and robust manner, identifying more than 50 proteins, 17 of them probably involved in the immune response. Changes in protein expression were statistically significant, especially when temperature was increased because this was notoriously affected by F. oxysporum 104 or 106 microconidia/mL. Some proteins were up-regulated upon immune fungal microconidia challenge when temperature changed from 25 to 37°C. After analysis of identified proteins by bioinformatics and meta-analysis, results revealed that they were involved in transport, immune response, storage, oxide-reduction and catabolism: 20 from G. mellonella, 20 from the Lepidoptera species and 19 spread across bacteria, protista, fungi and animal species. Among these, 13 proteins and 2 peptides were examined for their immune expression, and the hypothetical 3D structures of 2 well-known proteins, unannotated for G. mellonella, i.e., actin and CREBP, were resolved using peptides matched with Bombyx mori and Danaus plexippus, respectively. The main conclusion in this study was that iTRAQ tool constitutes a consistent method to detect proteins associated with the innate immune system of G. mellonella in response to infection caused by F. oxysporum. In addition, iTRAQ was a reliable quantitative proteomic approach to detect and quantify the expression levels of immune system proteins and peptides, in particular, it was found that 104 microconidia/mL at 37°C over expressed many more proteins than other treatments.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112179. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112179 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phagocytosis is an evolutionarily conserved process to ingest the invading microbes' infections and apoptotic or necrotic corpses, playing vital roles in defensing invaders and maintenance of normal physiological conditions. In the present study, a new Nimrod family phagocytic receptor with three EGF-like domains was identified in pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated CgNimC). CgNimC shared homology with other identified multiple EGF-like domain containing proteins. The mRNA transcripts of CgNimC were mainly distributed in mantle and hemocytes. Its relative expression level in hemocytes was significantly (P < 0.01) up-regulated after the injection of bacteria Vibrio anguillarum. Different to the NimC in Drosophila and Anopheles gambiae, the recombinant protein of CgNimC (rCgNimC) could bind directly to two gram-negative bacteria V. anguillarum and V. splendidus, but not to gram-positive bacteria Staphylococci aureus, Micrococcus luteus or fungi Yarrowia lipolytica and Pichia pastoris. The affinity of rCgNimC toward M. luteus and Y. lipolytica was enhanced when the microorganisms were pre-incubated with the cell free hemolymph. rCgNimC exhibited higher affinity to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and relatively lower affinity to peptidoglycan (PGN), while no affinity to glucan (GLU). After the CgNimC receptor was blocked by anti-rCgNimC antibody in vitro, the phagocytic rate of hemocytes toward two gram-negative bacteria V. anguillarum and V. splendidus was reduced significantly (P < 0.05), but no significant change of phagocytic rate was observed toward M. luteus and Y. lipolytica. All these results implied that CgNimC, with significant binding capability to LPS and gram-negative bacteria, was a novel phagocytic receptor involved in immune response of pacific oyster. Further, it was speculated that receptors of Nimrod family might function as a phagocytic receptor to recognize PAMPs on the invaders and its recognition could be promoted by opsonization of molecules in hemolymph. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 12/2014; 43(1). DOI:10.1016/j.fsi.2014.12.019 · 3.03 Impact Factor