We characterize a novel pathogen recognition protein obtained from the lepidopteran Galleria mellonella. This protein recognizes Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, and Candida albicans via specific binding to lipopolysaccharides, lipoteichoic acid, and beta-1,3-glucan, respectively. As a multiligand receptor capable of coping with a broad variety of invading pathogens, it is constitutively produced in the fat body, midgut, and integument but not in the hemocytes and is secreted into the hemolymph. The protein was confirmed to be relevant to cellular immune response and to further function as an opsonin that promotes the uptake of invading microorganisms into hemocytes. Our data reveal that the mechanism by which a multiligand receptor recognizes microorganisms contributes substantially to their phagocytosis by hemocytes. A better understanding of an opsonin with the required repertoire for detecting diverse invaders might provide us with critical insights into the mechanisms underlying insect phagocytosis.
"Such a coating of BmTCTP on the surface of bacteria leads to an enhanced ingestion of bacteria as shown in phagocytosis assay. Another multi-ligand recognition protein, cationic protein 8 (CP8), was identified in Galleria mellonella
. This protein recognizes E. coli, Micrococcus luteus and Candida albicans via specific binding to LPS, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and β-1,3-glucan and acts as an opsonin. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insect gut immunity is the first line of defense against oral infection. Although a few immune-related molecules in insect intestine has been identified by genomics or proteomics approach with comparison to well-studied tissues, such as hemolymph or fat body, our knowledge about the molecular mechanism underlying the gut immunity which would involve a variety of unidentified molecules is still limited. To uncover additional molecules that might take part in pathogen recognition, signal transduction or immune regulation in insect intestine, a T7 phage display cDNA library of the silkworm midgut is constructed. By use of different ligands for biopanning, Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) has been selected. BmTCTP is produced in intestinal epithelial cells and released into the gut lumen. The protein level of BmTCTP increases at the early time points during oral microbial infection and declines afterwards. In vitro binding assay confirms its activity as a multi-ligand binding molecule and it can further function as an opsonin that promotes the phagocytosis of microorganisms. Moreover, it can induce the production of anti-microbial peptide via a signaling pathway in which ERK is required and a dynamic tyrosine phosphorylation of certain cytoplasmic membrane protein. Taken together, our results characterize BmTCTP as a dual-functional protein involved in both the cellular and the humoral immune response of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.
PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e69284. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0069284 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candida spp. are opportunistic pathogens in humans, and their systemic infections display upwards of 30% mortality in immunocompromised patients. Current mammalian model systems have certain disadvantages in that obtaining results is time consuming owing to the relatively long life spans and these results have low statistical resolution because sample sizes are usually small. We have therefore evaluated the potential of Drosophila melanogaster as an additional model system with which to dissect the host-pathogen interactions that occur during Candida albicans systemic infection. To do this, we monitored the survival of wild-type flies infected with various C. albicans clinical isolates that were previously ranked for murine virulence. From our lifetime data we computed two metrics of virulence for each isolate. These correlated significantly with murine survival, and were also used to group the isolates, and this grouping made relevant predictions regarding their murine virulence. Notably, differences in virulence were not predictably resolvable using immune-deficient spz(-/-) flies, suggesting that Toll signalling might actually be required to predictably differentiate virulence. Our analysis reveals wild-type D. melanogaster as a sensitive and relevant model system; one that offers immense genetic tractability (having an extensive RNA interference library that enables tissue-specific gene silencing), and that is easy to manipulate and culture. Undoubtedly, it will prove to be a valuable addition to the model systems currently used to study C. albicans infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-mammalian models have been used to investigate fungal virulence. In this work we have explored the use of Galleria mellonella as an infection model for the pathogenic dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides lutzii. In mammalian models these fungi cause similar infections, and disease outcomes are influenced by the quantity of the infective inocula. We describe a similar aspect in a G. mellonella model and characterize the pathogenesis features in this system. Infection with P. lutzii or H. capsulatum, in all inoculum used, killed larvae at 25 and 37°C. However, there was a lack of correlation between the number of yeast cells used for infection and the time to larvae death, which may indicate that the fungi induce protective responses in a dynamic manner as the lowest concentrations of fungi induced the most rapid death. For both fungi, the degree of larvae melanization was directly proportional to the inocula size, and this effect was visibly more apparent at 37°C. Histological evaluation of the larvae showed a correlation between the inoculum and granuloma-like formation. Our results suggest that G. mellonella is a potentially useful model to study virulence of dimorphic fungi.
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