Transcription of the transforming growth factor beta activating integrin beta8 subunit is regulated by SP3, AP-1, and the p38 pathway.
ABSTRACT Integrin alphavbeta8 is a critical regulator of transforming growth factor beta activation in vasculogenesis during development, immune regulation, and endothelial/epithelial-mesenchymal homeostasis. Recent studies have suggested roles for integrin beta8 in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, brain arteriovenous malformations, and select cancers (Araya, J., Cambier, S., Markovics, J. A., Wolters, P., Jablons, D., Hill, A., Finkbeiner, W., Jones, K., Broaddus, V. C., Sheppard, D., Barzcak, A., Xiao, Y., Erle, D. J., and Nishimura, S. L. (2007) J. Clin. Invest. 117, 3551-3562; Su, H., Kim, H., Pawlikowska, L., Kitamura, H., Shen, F., Cambier, S., Markovics, J., Lawton, M. T., Sidney, S., Bollen, A. W., Kwok, P. Y., Reichardt, L., Young, W. L., Yang, G. Y., and Nishimura, S. L. (2010) Am. J. Pathol. 176, 1018-1027; Culhane, A. C., and Quackenbush, J. (2009) Cancer Res. 69, 7480-7485; Cambier, S., Mu, D. Z., O'Connell, D., Boylen, K., Travis, W., Liu, W. H., Broaddus, V. C., and Nishimura, S. L. (2000) Cancer Res. 60, 7084-7093). Here we report the first identification and characterization of the promoter for ITGB8. We show that a SP binding site and a cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the ITGB8 core promoter are required for its expression and that Sp1, Sp3, and several AP-1 transcription factors form a complex that binds to these sites in a p38-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate the requirement for Sp3, ATF-2, and p38 for the transcription and protein expression of integrin beta8. Additionally, reduction of SP3 or inhibition of p38 blocks alphavbeta8-mediated transforming growth factor beta activation. These results place integrin beta8 expression and activity under the control of ubiquitous transcription factors in a stress-activated and pro-inflammatory pathway.
- BMC Cancer 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1164-6 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Constitutive expression of Krüppel-like factor 3 (KLF3, BKLF) increases marginal zone (MZ) B cell numbers, a phenotype shared with mice lacking KLF2. Ablation of KLF3, known to interact with serum response factor (SRF), or SRF itself, results in fewer MZ B cells. It is unknown how these functional equivalences result. In this study, it is shown that KLF3 acts as transcriptional repressor for the leukocyte-specific integrin β7 (Itgb7, Ly69) by binding to the β7 promoter, as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. KLF2 overexpression antagonizes this repression and also binds the β7 promoter, indicating that these factors may compete for target sequence(s). Whereas β7 is identified as direct KLF target, its repression by KLF3 is not connected to the MZ B cell increase because β7-deficient mice have a normal complement of these and the KLF3-driven increase still occurs when β7 is deleted. Despite this, KLF3 overexpression abolishes lymphocyte homing to Peyer's patches, much like β7 deficiency does. Furthermore, KLF3 expression alone overcomes the MZ B cell deficiency when SRF is absent. SRF is also dispensable for the KLF3-mediated repression of β7. Thus, despite the shared phenotype of KLF3 and SRF-deficient mice, cooperation of these factors appears neither relevant for the formation of MZ B cells nor for the regulation of β7. Finally, a potent negative regulatory feedback loop limiting KLF3 expression is shown in this study, mediated by KLF3 directly repressing its own gene promoter. In summary, KLFs use regulatory circuits to steer lymphocyte maturation and homing and directly control leukocyte integrin expression.The Journal of Immunology 07/2014; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1302613 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxidation and glycation enhance foam cell formation via MAPK/JNK in euglycemic and diabetic subjects. Here, we investigated the effects of glycated and oxidized LDL (glc-oxLDL) on MAPK-ERK and JNK signaling pathways using human coronary smooth muscle cells. Glc-oxLDL induced a broad cascade of MAPK/JNK-dependent signaling transduction pathways and the AP-1 complex. In glc-oxLDL treated coronary arterioles, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α increased JNK phosphorylation, whereas protein kinase inhibitor dimethylaminopurine (DMAP) prevented the TNF-induced increase in JNK phosphorylation. The role of MKK4 and JNK were then investigated in vivo, using apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Peritoneal macrophages, isolated from spontaneously hyperlipidemic but euglycemic mice showed increases in both proteins and phosphorylated proteins. Compared to streptozotocin-treated diabetic C57BL6 and nondiabetic C57BL6 Wt mice, in streptozotocin-diabetic ApoE(-/-) mice, the increment of foam cell formation corresponded to an increment of phosphorylation of JNK1, JNK2, and MMK4. Thus, we provide a first line of evidence that MAPK-ERK/JNK pathways are involved in vascular damage induced by glycoxidation.Journal of Cellular Physiology 11/2012; 227(11):3639-47. DOI:10.1002/jcp.24070 · 3.87 Impact Factor