Adherence and Decision Aids: A Model and a Narrative Review
ABSTRACT Patient adherence to medication or lifestyle interventions is a serious concern. Interventions to improve adherence exist, but their effects are usually small. Several authors suggested that decision aids may positively affect adherence.
. This presentation examines the role of decision aids in adherence research through development of a model and a narrative review.
. I: A model was developed to organize pathways relating decision aids and adherence. There is clinical evidence for these pathways, suggesting that decision aids may potentially improve adherence. The model is helpful when considering measures to study decision aids and adherence. II: A narrative review of decision aids and adherence was done. A systematic search resulted in 11 randomized studies. Two studies, both in the hypertension management domain, were positive. Shortcomings were identified regarding the range of adherence measures, the sample size, and the
It is argued that outcomes for the option "nonadherent" behavior should be described explicitly in the decision aid to inform patients about the costs and benefits of nonadherent behavior.
. A relation between decision aids and adherence is plausible in view of the psychological and medical literature. A systematic search showed that experimental evidence relating decision aids and adherence is inconclusive. Rigorous trials on this topic are worthwhile. Such trials should employ adequate sample sizes, multiple adherence measures, and a control arm delivering usual care. The decision aid should describe the option "being nonadherent" and its outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: Primary medication adherence occurs when a patient properly fills the first prescription for a new medication. Primary adherence only occurs about three-quarters of the time for antihypertensive medications. We assessed patients' barriers to primary adherence and attributes of patient-provider discussions that might improve primary adherence for antihypertensives. In total, 26 patients with incomplete primary adherence for an antihypertensive, identified using their retail pharmacy claims, participated in four focus groups. Following a moderators' guide developed a priori, moderators led patients in a discussion of patients' attitudes and experiences with hypertension and receiving an antihypertensive medication, barriers to primary adherence, and their preferences for shared decision making and communication with providers. Three authors analysed and organized data into salient themes, including patients' anger about and suspicion of their hypertension diagnosis, the need for medication and providers' credibility. A trusting patient-provider relationship, shared decision-making support, full disclosure of side effects and cost sensitivity were attributes that might enhance primary adherence. Developing decision support interventions that strengthen the patient-provider relationship by enhancing provider credibility and patient trust prior to prescribing may provide more effective approaches for improving primary adherence.Health Education Research 05/2014; 29(5). DOI:10.1093/her/cyu023 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The care processes of healthcare providers are typically considered as human-centric, flexible, evolving, complex and multi-disciplinary. Consequently, acquiring an insight in the dynamics of these care processes can be an arduous task. A novel event log based approach for extracting valuable medical and organizational information on past executions of the care processes is presented in this study. Care processes are analyzed with the help of a preferential set of process mining techniques in order to discover recurring patterns, analyze and characterize process variants and identify adverse medical events.Computers in biology and medicine 01/2014; 44:88-96. DOI:10.1016/j.compbiomed.2013.10.015 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Decision aids offer promise as a practical solution to improve patient decision making about coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention medications and help patients choose medications to which they are likely to adhere. However, little data is available on decision aids designed to promote adherence. In this paper, we report on secondary analyses of a randomized trial of a CHD adherence intervention (second generation decision aid plus tailored messages) versus usual care in an effort to understand how the decision aid facilitates adherence. We focus on data collected from the primary study visit, when intervention participants presented 45 minutes early to a previously scheduled provider visit; viewed the decision aid, indicating their intent for CHD risk reduction after each decision aid component (individualized risk assessment and education, values clarification, and coaching); and filled out a post-decision aid survey assessing their knowledge, perceived risk, decisional conflict, and intent for CHD risk reduction. Control participants did not present early and received usual care from their provider. Following the provider visit, participants in both groups completed post-visit surveys assessing the number and quality of CHD discussions with their provider, their intent for CHD risk reduction, and their feelings about the decision aid. We enrolled 160 patients into our study (81 intervention, 79 control). Within the decision aid group, the decision aid significantly increased knowledge of effective CHD prevention strategies (+21 percentage points; adjusted p<.0001) and the accuracy of perceived CHD risk (+33 percentage points; adjusted p<.0001), and significantly decreased decisional conflict (-0.63; adjusted p<.0001). Comparing between study groups, the decision aid also significantly increased CHD prevention discussions with providers (+31 percentage points; adjusted p<.0001) and improved perceptions of some features of patient-provider interactions. Further, it increased participants' intentions for any effective CHD risk reducing strategies (+21 percentage points; 95% CI 5 to 37 percentage points), with a majority of the effect from the educational component of the decision aid. Ninety-nine percent of participants found the decision aid easy to understand and 93% felt it easy to use. Decision aids can play an important role in improving decisions about CHD prevention and increasing patient-provider discussions and intent to reduce CHD risk.BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 02/2014; 14(1):14. DOI:10.1186/1472-6947-14-14 · 1.50 Impact Factor