Epstein-Barr Virus Persistence and Reactivation in Myasthenia Gravis Thymus

Department of Neurology IV, Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology, Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy.
Annals of Neurology (Impact Factor: 9.98). 06/2010; 67(6):726-38. DOI: 10.1002/ana.21902
Source: PubMed


Increasing evidence supports a link between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous B-lymphotropic human herpesvirus, and common B-cell-related autoimmune diseases. We sought evidence of EBV infection in thymuses from patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), an autoimmune disease characterized by intrathymic B-cell activation.
Seventeen MG thymuses (6 follicular hyperplastic, 6 diffuse hyperplastic, 5 involuted) and 6 control thymuses were analyzed using in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs), immunohistochemistry for EBV latent and lytic proteins, and polymerase chain reaction for EBV DNA and mRNA.
All 17 MG thymuses showed evidence of active EBV infection, whereas none of the control thymuses were infected. Cells expressing EBERs (12 of 17) and EBV latency proteins (EBNA2, LMP1, and LMP2A) (16 of 17) were detected in medullary infiltrates and in germinal centers. Cells expressing early (BFRF1, BMRF1) and late (p160, gp350/220) lytic phase EBV proteins were present in 16 MG thymuses. Latency (EBNA1, LMP2A) or lytic (BZLF1) transcripts (often both) were present in all MG thymuses, and EBV DNA (LMP1 gene) was detected in 13 MG thymuses. We also found CD8+ T cells, CD56 + CD3-natural killer cells, and BDCA-2+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells in immune infiltrates of MG thymuses, but not germinal centers, suggesting an attempt of the immune system to counteract EBV infection.
Dysregulated EBV infection in the pathological thymus appears common in MG and may contribute to the immunological alterations initiating and/or perpetuating the disease.

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Available from: Barbara Serafini, Oct 04, 2015
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    • "Recently, the same group has also proposed a role of EBVinfections in the pathology of MG. Viral DNA and cells expressing EBV-specific RNAs and membrane proteins were found in the thymus of MG patients, but not in control adults (Cavalcante et al., 2010b). However, the suggested etiological role of EBV in MG was lately challenged by two groups, which had not found evidence for an EBV infection in the MG thymus neither on DNA nor on protein level (Meyer et al., 2011; Kakalacheva et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: In autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis (MG), a neuromuscular disease generally mediated by autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), the muscle is the target organ of the autoimmune attack, while the thymus seems to be the primary production site of the autoantibodies. In the majority of patients with anti-AChR antibodies, it is characterized by the presence of germinal centers, which contain B cells that produce anti-AChR antibodies. In this review, we summarize recent results regarding neoangiogenic processes, cell infiltration and modified chemokine expression in the MG thymus, which are typical features of secondary lymphoid organs. The structural and functional changes in the MG thymus therefore allow us to declare it to be an archetype for tertiary lymphoid neogenesis providing optimal settings for the interaction between lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells in order to elicit an immune response. We further discuss factors that may have a key role in the transformation of the MG thymus into a tertiary lymphoid organ, such as IFN type I and dsRNA signaling. These factors could also be of importance in other autoimmune diseases, especially those characterized by tertiary lymphoid neogenesis.
    Revue Neurologique 09/2013; 169(8). DOI:10.1016/j.neurol.2013.02.005 · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    • "The role of viral infections in MG, however, is controversial. One study had described Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infected B cells in MG thymus[69], but later reports did not reproduce the data[70] [71]. MG patients have high titers of antibodies against the EBV protein EBNA1, but this could be an epiphenomenon unrelated to MG pathogenesis[72]. "
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    ABSTRACT: THIS IS NOT THE FINAL POST-PRINT VERSION. To get full post-print version, please, go to Myasthenic disorders are a well characterized group of diseases of the neuromuscular junction. Their pathogenesis is diverse, including genetic and autoimmune mechanisms. We review recent findings on risk factors, pathogenesis and treatment of autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Better knowledge of congenital myasthenia has led to the development of efficient diagnostic algorithms that have therapeutic implications. New epidemiological and genetic risk factors have been identified and are considered to play a role in the development of myasthenia gravis. The study of the role of innate immunity in myasthenia gravis has identified relevant pathways to explain myasthenia gravis causes. The description of the pathogenic role of IgG4 anti-MuSK antibodies has revealed heterogeneous immune mechanisms that should lead to more specific therapies. Rituximab seems to be particularly effective in MuSK myasthenia gravis, and eculizumab arises as an option in refractory AChR myasthenia gravis. Therapeutic algorithms need to be tailored to each myasthenia subtype. Increasing knowledge about the environmental and genetic risk factors and basic immunopathogenesis of myasthenia gravis, including the role of innate immunity, regulatory T cell impairment and autoantibody heterogeneity, is providing a rationale for treatment with new biological agents. Current immunotherapies in myasthenia gravis undoubtedly provide benefits, but also cause side-effects. Controlled trials are, therefore, needed to confirm initial results from pilot studies.
    Current opinion in neurology 08/2013; DOI:10.1097/WCO.0b013e328364c079 · 5.31 Impact Factor
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    • "Here it is proposed that ectopic lymphoid follicles are major sites of EBV persistence in chronic autoimmune diseases, as has been shown in Sjögren's syndrome [138], inflammatory bowel disease [140], MS [141], and myasthenia gravis [142]. "
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    ABSTRACT: CD8+ T-cell deficiency is a feature of many chronic autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis, vitiligo, bullous pemphigoid, alopecia areata, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, type 1 diabetes mellitus, Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, myasthenia gravis, IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy, and pernicious anaemia. It also occurs in healthy blood relatives of patients with autoimmune diseases, suggesting it is genetically determined. Here it is proposed that this CD8+ T-cell deficiency underlies the development of chronic autoimmune diseases by impairing CD8+ T-cell control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, with the result that EBV-infected autoreactive B cells accumulate in the target organ where they produce pathogenic autoantibodies and provide costimulatory survival signals to autoreactive T cells which would otherwise die in the target organ by activation-induced apoptosis. Autoimmunity is postulated to evolve in the following steps: (1) CD8+ T-cell deficiency, (2) primary EBV infection, (3) decreased CD8+ T-cell control of EBV, (4) increased EBV load and increased anti-EBV antibodies, (5) EBV infection in the target organ, (6) clonal expansion of EBV-infected autoreactive B cells in the target organ, (7) infiltration of autoreactive T cells into the target organ, and (8) development of ectopic lymphoid follicles in the target organ. It is also proposed that deprivation of sunlight and vitamin D at higher latitudes facilitates the development of autoimmune diseases by aggravating the CD8+ T-cell deficiency and thereby further impairing control of EBV. The hypothesis makes predictions which can be tested, including the prevention and successful treatment of chronic autoimmune diseases by controlling EBV infection.
    01/2012; 2012(7691):189096. DOI:10.1155/2012/189096
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