Permanent vascular access survival in children on long-term chronic hemodialysis

Department of Nephrology, Hemodialysis Unit, Hospital de Pediatría Prof JP Garrahan, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Pediatric Nephrology (Impact Factor: 2.86). 09/2010; 25(9):1731-8. DOI: 10.1007/s00467-010-1553-7
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study is to report a single-center experience regarding the management and outcome of permanent vascular accesses (VA) in children on chronic hemodialysis (HD). We analyzed the survival of permanent VA in 79 pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease patients on chronic HD between January 2000 and December 2008. One hundred and thirty-seven VA [89 native fistulas (AVFs) and 48 grafts (AVGs)] were created in 79 children. The creation of AVFs was significantly more frequent in children weighing >25 kg and AVGs in children weighing <25 kg (p = 0.003). The 1-year primary patency rate was 50% for AVF and 30% for AVG. The secondary patency rates at 1, 2, and 3 years for AVFs were 73, 50, and 20% and for AVGs were 64, 36, and 20%, respectively. The total number of surgical and endovascular interventions was significantly higher in AVGs (p <or=0.05). Access stenosis, thrombosis and infection episodes occurred more frequently in AVG (p = 0.02). VAs had a high rate of interventions. Our study demonstrated better results of AVFs formation over AVGs, for long-term HD access in pediatrics. Surveillance and radiologic procedures are necessary for early detection and treatment of access complications in order to extend access survival.

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Despite the Fistula First initiative there is still reluctance to use arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) for chronic haemodialysis (HD) in children. Our aim was to compare outcomes of AVFs and central venous lines (CVL) in children on chronic HD in a centre where AVF is the primary choice for vascular access. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective case notes analysis of access complications, dialysis adequacy and laboratory outcomes in children who underwent dialysis for at least a year by AVF (n = 20, median age 14.2 years, range (2.9-16.5) and CVL (n = 5, median age 2.4 years, range 2.0-12.2) between January 2007 and December 2010. Results: Primary access failure rate (patient-months) was 1 per 78.8 for AVF (n = 5) and 1 per 15.5 for CVLs (n = 7, p = 0.3). Failure thereafter was 1 per 131.3 and 1 per 18.5 for AVF and CVLs respectively (n = 3 and 6 respectively; p = 0.2). The annualised hospitalisation rate for access malfunction was 0.44% and 3.1% for AVFs and CVLs respectively (p = 0.004). Patients with AVFs had a lower infection rate of 0.25 per 100 patient-months compared with CVL at 3.2 per 100 (p = 0.002). There was no difference in dialysis adequacy or laboratory values between AVF and CVL groups. Access survival rates (including both primary and secondary access failure) were significantly higher for AVF compared with CVL (p = 0.0002, hazard ratio = 0.15, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.37). Conclusions: Patients with AVF spend less time in hospital than those dialysed by CVLs and have a much lower access infection rate. These findings emphasise the need to use AVF as first-line access for paediatric patients on chronic HD.
    Pediatric Nephrology 10/2012; 28(2). DOI:10.1007/s00467-012-2318-2 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An internal permanent vascular access [arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or arteriovenous graft (AVG)] is preferred over central venous catheters (CVC) for chronic hemodialysis. However, CVC remain the most commonly used access in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate our experience with AVF. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children aged 1-18 years on chronic hemodialysis from 2001 to 2012. Patients were divided into three time periods: 2001-2005, 2006-2009 and 2010-2012. A systematic approach to AVF placement was introduced in our department in 2006 which resulted in a greater number of AVF being placed and used, but the access failure rate was still higher than desired. In 2010, a more experienced vascular surgeon was contacted to perform AVF surgery in our most difficult AVF candidates. Sixty-five AVF were created in 55 patients (67.3 % male). The median age of the patients was 14 (3-18) years. Forty-one (63.1 %) AVF were used successfully, and this number increased from 52.6 to 57.6 to 92.3 % over the three time periods, respectively. Over time, AVF use rates increased and CVC use decreased. By 2012 only 7.7 % of our patients were using a CVC. The primary patency rate was 42.9 % at 1 year; secondary patency rates were 100 and 93.8 % at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Infection and hospitalization rates were higher for CVC than for AVF [0.8 vs. 0.1 infections per access-year (p < 0.001) and 0.9 vs. 0.2 hospitalizations per access-year (p < 0.001)]. With a dedicated approach and vascular access team it is possible to decrease CVC and increase AVF use in children on hemodialysis. In our study, increased AVF use resulted in decreased access-related infection and hospitalization rates.
    Pediatric Nephrology 01/2014; 29(10). DOI:10.1007/s00467-013-2744-9 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Central venous catheters (CVC) are frequently used for haemodialysis (HD) in children. However, there is paucity of information on the outcomes of CVCs when used for HD in very young patients. Our objective is to report the success, safety and complication rates of CVCs used for HD in children weighing less than 15kg. Materials and methods Single-center retrospective study of all patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) weighing < 15kg, who underwent a tunneled CVC placement for HD, between July 2006 and June 2012 at our institution. Analysed data included clinical background, age and weight at initiation of HD, outcome of HD, CVC vein insertion site, reason for removal, and catheter survival (in days). Results 31 CVC were placed in 11 patients weighing < 15kg, 8 males and 3 females. The main causes of ESRD were renal dysplasia and congenital nephrotic syndrome. At the beginning of HD, mean age was 27.5 (range 5-60) months and mean weight was 10.4kg (4.5-13kg). The preferred insertion site was the right internal jugular vein (90%). Mean duration of HD was 312 days. Mechanical factors were the main reason for catheter removal (39%). Mean catheter survival was 110 days/catheter. Conclusions We believe our study provides relevant information and encouraging data to support the use of CVC for HD in this cohort of infants; however, further improvement in prevention of catheter thrombosis and management of infections needs to be achieved.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 08/2014; 49(8). DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2014.02.043 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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