New bicyclic conidine iminosugars 1d and 1e were synthesized from D-glucose. Thus, D-glucose was converted to sugar beta-amino acids 3a and 3b in good yields. Individual treatment of 3a/3b with the Mukaiyama reagent afforded sugar beta-lactams 4a/4b that on reduction with LiAlH(4)/AlCl(3) gave azetidines 5a/5b with a sugar appendage. Reductive aminocyclization of sugar azetidines 5a/5b afforded the corresponding conidine iminosugars 1d/1e. Based on the (1)H NMR and DFT calculation studies the conformation of 1d was assigned as half chair A2 and that of 1e as a boat B2. The glycosidase inhibitory activities of 1d and 1e such as alpha-mannosidase, alpha-glucosidase and alpha-galactosidase were studied. The alpha-amylase activity was compared with acarbose. Compound 1d was found to be a moderate inhibitor of glycosidases while 1e was noticed to be a good inhibitor of alpha-mannosidase and a moderate inhibitor of other glycosidases. These results were substantiated by molecular docking studies using WHAT IF software and the AUTODOCK 3.0 program.
"Glucosidase inhibition assay of extracts of the leaves, stem, and flower of G. glauca and bulbs of D. bulbifera was carried out as per Sanap et al., 2010 . In brief, 0.1 unit/mL of α-glucosidase was mixed with each of the samples and incubated for 1 h at 37°C. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting about 220 million people worldwide. One of the most critical complications of diabetes is post-prandial hyper-glycemia (PPHG). Glucosidase inhibitor and α-amylase inhibitors are class of compounds that help in managing PPHG. Low-cost herbal treatment is recommended due to their lesser side effect for treatment of diabetes. Two plants with significant traditional therapeutic potential, namely, Gnidia glauca and Dioscorea bulbifera, were tested for their efficiency to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Stem, leaf, and flower of G. glauca and bulb of D. bulbifera were sequentially extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol as well as separately with 70% ethanol. Petroleum ether extract of flower of G. glauca was found to inhibit α-amylase significantly (78.56%). Extracts were further tested against crude murine pancreatic, small intestinal, and liver glucosidase enzyme which revealed excellent inhibitory properties. α-glucosidase inhibition provided a strong in vitro evidence for confirmation of both G. glauca and D. bulbifera as excellent antidiabetic remedy. This is the first report of its kind that provides a strong biochemical basis for management of type II diabetes using G. glauca and D. bulbifera. These results provide intense rationale for further in vivo and clinical study.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012(1741-427X):929051. DOI:10.1155/2012/929051 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A concise synthesis of two diastereomers of (+)-castanospermine namely 1- and 8a-epi-castanospermine 1b and 1c, respectively, is reported from d-glucose. The methodology involves stereoselective cross metathesis of d-glucose derived alkene 2 with 4-bromo-1-butene followed by azide displacement and m-CPBA oxidation to afford diastereomeric γ,δ-epoxyazides 5a/5b. The Staudinger reaction of epoxyazide 5a followed by reaction with benzylchloroformate (CbzCl) unexpectedly furnished 1,3-oxazinan-2-one derivative 7 whose stereochemistry was establish by single crystal X-ray. This helps to assign the stereochemistry in the epoxidation reaction. The reduction of 5a/5b was then carried out by transfer hydrogenation to provide γ,δ-epoxyamine that concomitantly undergoes intramolecular 5-endo-tet cyclization to afford hydroxypyrrolidine ring skeleton with sugar framework-a precursor to castanospermine analogues 1b/1c.Graphical abstract
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New six- and seven-membered 1-N-iminosugars were prepared from d-glucose by the stereoselective Michael addition of nitromethane to d-glucose derived α,β-unsaturated ester A followed by one pot reduction of nitro/ester functionality and subsequent amine protection to get N-Cbz protected aminol 6. Hydrolysis of 1,2-acetonide and reductive aminocyclization gave seven membered 1-N-iminosugar 5b. While, hydrolysis of 1,2-acetonide followed by NaIO(4) oxidative cleavage and hydrogenation using 10% Pd(OH)(2)/C, H(2) gave six membered 1-N-iminosugar 4a; the hydrogenation using 10% Pd/C-H(2) however, gave N-methyl substituted 1-N-iminosugar 4b. The hydrochloride salts of 4a/4b and 5b were found to be specific α-galactosidase and moderate α-glucosidae inhibitors, respectively, in micro molar range.
Bijo Mathew, Gulberk Ucar, Samiye Yabanogclu-Ciftci, Ipek Baysal, Jerad Suresh, Githa Elizabeth Mathew, Jobin Kunjumon Vilapurathu, A. M. Nadeena, P. Nabeela, V. Lakshmi, Abitha Haridas, Fajeelath Fathima
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