Enantioselective total synthesis of plakotenin, a cytotoxic metabolite from Plakortis sp
ABSTRACT The first total enantioselective synthesis of plakotenin is described. This marine natural product was isolated from an Okinawan sponge of the genus Plakortis and shows potent biological activity against several cancerous cell lines. A biomimetic intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction served as a key step in the total synthesis. The synthesis proves the relative and absolute stereochemistry of natural plakotenin.
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ABSTRACT: The total syntheses of both natural (+)-spiculoic acid A and (+)-zyggomphic acid, new cytotoxic marine natural products of polyketide origin, have been accomplished for the first time. These syntheses were achieved by the highly stereoselective and high-yielding intramolecular Diels–Alder reaction of a functionalized (E,E,E)-2,7,9-dodecanal derivative to construct the core tetrahydroindan-2-one skeleton. A stereocongener of (+)-spiculoic acid A, i.e., the (2R,5S,6R)-isomer, was also synthesized. The details of these total syntheses are described.Tetrahedron 09/2011; 67(35):6730-6745. DOI:10.1016/j.tet.2011.04.006 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We show that the previously [Tetrahedron Lett.1992, 33, 2579] proposed structure of natural plakotenin must be revised. Recently, the total synthesis of plakotenin was achieved via an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction from a (E,E,Z,E)-tetraene as linear precursor. Using density functional theory, the computation of the four possible transition states for this reaction shows that the previously proposed structure could only have been formed via an energetically high-lying transition state, which is very unlikely. Instead, we suggest that the structure of plakotenin corresponds to the product formed via the lowest transition state. A comparison of experimental and theoretical optical rotation, circular dichroism, and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectra conclusively proves that the structure of plakotenin is the one that is suggested by the transition state computations. Moreover, the simulation of the nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectra suggests that it is most likely that the misassignment of the (1)H chemical shifts of two methyl groups has led to the wrong structure prediction in the 1992 work. The previously proposed structure of iso-plakotenin remains unaffected by our structure revision, but the structures of homo- and nor-plakotenin must also be revised. The present work shows how the total synthesis of a natural product, together with the theoretical determination of the barrier heights of the reactions involved, can be of great help to assign its structure. It appears that intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions can be modeled accurately by today's first-principles methods of quantum chemistry.Journal of the American Chemical Society 02/2012; 134(4):2154-60. DOI:10.1021/ja2087097 · 11.44 Impact Factor
Article: Marine natural products[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Covering: 2010. Previous review: Nat. Prod. Rep., 2011, 28, 196. This review covers the literature published in 2010 for marine natural products, with 895 citations (590 for the period January to December 2010) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1003 for 2010), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.Natural Product Reports 02/2012; 29(2):144-222. DOI:10.1039/c2np00090c · 10.72 Impact Factor