Effect of Smoking Cessation Intervention on Results of Acute Fracture Surgery A Randomized Controlled Trial
ABSTRACT Tobacco smoking is a major health and economic concern and is also known to have a significant negative effect on surgical outcomes. The benefits of a smoking cessation intervention prior to elective orthopaedic surgery have been evaluated previously. Our aim was to assess whether a smoking cessation program, initiated during the acute hospitalization period and carried out for six weeks, could reduce the number of complications following emergency surgical treatment of fractures.
In a multicenter, single-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial, 105 smokers with a fracture of the lower or upper extremity that needed acute surgical treatment were randomized to an intervention group (n = 50) or a control group (n = 55). The intervention group was offered a standardized smoking cessation program for six weeks, and all patients were followed at two to three weeks, four weeks, and six to twelve weeks.
The proportion of patients with at least one postoperative complication was significantly larger in the control group than it was in the intervention group (38% and 20%, respectively; p = 0.048). The development of two or more postoperative complications was also more common among the controls (p = 0.039). The rates of superficial wound infection, the most frequently recorded complication in both groups, were 20% and 8%, but this difference was not significant. A secondary analysis showed that the odds of having a complication were 2.51 times (95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 6.9 times) higher in the control group than in the intervention group, but this difference was not significant.
Our results indicate that a smoking cessation intervention program during the first six weeks after acute fracture surgery decreases the risk of postoperative complications.
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ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is known to increase perioperative complication rates, but no study to date has examined its effect specifically in forefoot surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cigarette smoking increased complications after forefoot surgery. The records of 602 patients who had forefoot surgery between 2008 and 2010, and for whom smoking status was known, were reviewed. Patients were categorized into 3 groups based on smoking status: active smoker, smoker in the past, or nonsmoker. Medical records were reviewed for occurrence of complications, including nonunion, delayed union, delayed wound healing, infection, and persistent pain. Active smokers were found to have a notably higher complication rate (36.4%) after forefoot surgery than patients who previously (16.5%) or never (8.5%) smoked. Patients who continued to smoke in the perioperative period had the highest percentage of delayed union (3.0%), infection (9.1%), delayed wound healing (10.6%), and persistent pain (15.2%). Active cigarette smokers were 4.3 times more likely to have a complication than nonsmokers. Patients who smoked at any point in the past but quit prior to surgery were 1.9 times more likely than nonsmokers to incur a complication. The average time of smoking cessation for patients who had smoked at any point in the past but had quit prior to surgery was 17 years. For active smokers, those with a complication smoked an average of 18 cigarettes daily, while those without a complication smoked 14 cigarettes daily. Before forefoot surgery, surgeons should educate patients who smoke about their increased risk of complications and encourage smoking cessation. Level III, retrospective comparative study. © The Author(s) 2015.Foot & Ankle International 01/2015; DOI:10.1177/1071100714565785 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Object Smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable morbidity and death in the US and has been associated with perioperative complications. In this study, the authors examined the effects of smoking on perioperative outcomes and pseudarthrosis rates following anterior cervical corpectomy. Methods All adult patients from 2006 to 2011 who underwent anterior cervical corpectomy were identified. Patients were categorized into 3 groups: patients who never smoked (nonsmokers), patients who quit for at least 1 year (quitters), and patients who continue to smoke (current smokers). Demographic, medical, and surgical covariates were collected. Multivariate analysis was used to define the relationship between smoking and blood loss, 30-day complications, length of hospital stay, and pseudarthrosis. Results A total of 160 patients were included in the study. Of the 160 patients, 49.4% were nonsmokers, 25.6% were quitters, and 25.0% were current smokers. The overall 30-day complication rate was 20.0%, and pseudarthrosis occurred in 7.6% of patients. Mean blood loss was 368.3 ml and mean length of stay was 6.5 days. Current smoking status was significantly associated with higher complication rates (p < 0.001) and longer lengths of stay (p < 0.001); current smoking status remained an independent risk factor for both outcomes after multivariate logistic regression analysis. The complications that were experienced in current smokers were mostly infections (76.5%), and this proportion was significantly greater than in nonsmokers and quitters (p = 0.013). Current smoking status was also an independent risk factor for pseudarthrosis at 1-year follow-up (p = 0.012). Conclusions Smoking is independently associated with higher perioperative complications (especially infectious complications), longer lengths of stay, and higher rates of pseudarthrosis in patients undergoing anterior cervical corpectomy.Journal of Neurosurgery Spine 07/2014; 21(4):1-12. DOI:10.3171/2014.6.SPINE13762 · 2.36 Impact Factor