Polymorphisms of Lewis and Secretor genes are related to breast cancer and metastasis in axillary lymph nodes.
ABSTRACT ABH and Lewis antigen expression has been associated with cancer development and prognosis, tumor differentiation, and metastasis. Considering that invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC) presents multiple molecular alterations, the aim of the present study was to determine whether the polymorphism of ABO, Lewis, and Secretor genes, as well as ABO phenotyping, could be associated with tumor differentiation and lymph nodes metastasis. Seventy-six women with IDC and 78 healthy female blood donors were submitted to ABO phenotyping/genotyping and Lewis and Secretor genotyping. Phenotyping was performed by hemagglutination and genotyping by the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers. ABO, Lewis, and Secretor genes were classified by individual single nucleotide polymorphism at sites 59, 1067, 202, and 314 of the Lewis gene, 428 of the Secretor gene, and 261 (O1 allele), 526 (O2 and B allele), and 703 (B allele). No association was found between breast cancer and ABO antigen expression (P = 0.9323) or genotype (P = 0.9356). Lewis-negative genotype was associated with IDC (P = 0.0126) but not with anatomoclinical parameters. Nonsecretor genotype was associated with axillary lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0149). In conclusion, Lewis and Secretor genotyping could be useful to predict respectively breast cancer susceptibility and axillary lymph nodes metastasis.
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ABSTRACT: Epithelial carcinoma and leukemia cells express sialyl Lewis x oligosaccharides as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens. To determine the role of sialyl Lewis x oligosaccharides in tumor dissemination, human melanoma MeWo cells, which do not express sialyl Lewis x, were transfected with alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase III (FTIII), and cell lines expressing different amounts of sialyl Lewis x were isolated. When these cells were injected into the tail vein of nude mice, cells expressing moderate amounts of sialyl Lewis x (MeWo-FTIII.M) produced a significantly greater number of lung tumor foci than did parental MeWo cells. In contrast, cells expressing large amounts of sialyl Lewis x (MeWo-FTIII.H) produced few lung tumor foci in nude mice but were highly tumorigenic in beige mice, which have defective natural killer (NK) cells. In vitro assays demonstrated that MeWo-FTIII.H cells are much more sensitive to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity than are MeWo-FTIII.M cells or parental MeWo cells and the susceptibility of MeWo-FTIII.H cells to NK cell-mediated cytolysis can be inhibited by preincubating MeWo-FTIII.H cells with anti-sialyl Lewis x antibody. Moreover, we discovered that NK cell-mediated cytolysis of MeWo-FTIII.H cells can be inhibited by the addition of an antibody against the NK cell receptor CD94 or sialyl Lewis x oligosaccharides. These results, combined with structural analysis of MeWo-FTIII.H cell carbohydrates, indicate that moderate amounts of sialyl Lewis x lead to tumor metastasis, whereas expression of high levels of sialyl Lewis x leads to an NK cell attack on tumor cells, demonstrating that expression of different amounts of sialyl Lewis x results in entirely different biological consequences.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2002; 99(21):13789-94. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The increased odds of stomach cancer among subjects with blood type A have been reported in epidemiological studies. Aim To study the relation of family history of gastric cancer and ABO blood type with precancerous gastric lesions in a high-risk area for stomach cancer. Subjects and setting We examined 3400 adults aged 35–64 in a population-based gastric endoscopic screening in a county in China with one of the highest rates of stomach cancer in the world. Methods In this cross-sectional study, data on family cancer history, ABO blood type and other characteristics of the participants were obtained by interview and blood test. Responses were compared between those with the most advanced gastric lesions, dysplasia (DYS) or intestinal metaplasia (IM), versus those with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) or superficial gastritis (SG). Results The prevalence odds ratio (OR) for blood type A relative to other types was 1.39 (95% CI : 1.12–1.73) for DYS and 1.28 (95% CI : 1.06–1.53) for IM. The OR associated with parental history of stomach cancer was 1.88 (95% CI : 1.20–2.95) for DYS, but the numbers were too small to evaluate aggregation among siblings. The combined OR associated with blood type A and a parental of history of gastric cancer was 2.61 (95% CI : 1.59–4.30) for DYS and 1.46 (95% CI : 0.93–2.31) for IM. Conclusions The findings suggest that genetic factors play a role in developing precancerous gastric lesions.International Journal of Epidemiology 07/2000; · 6.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although breast cancer incidence continues to increase, mortality has been decreasing, principally as a result of earlier detection and improvements in adjuvant systemic therapy. Nonetheless, because antineo-plastic agents are associated with substantial morbidity and occasional mortality, efforts to individualize treatment strategies are desirable. In addition to classic histopathologic diagnosis, molecular and cellular tumor markers may help in establishing prognosis or prediction of benefit. Recommendations for routine use of tumor markers in breast cancer have been conservative. Although several studies have been reported, few are of sufficiently high level of evidence to permit solid conclusions. Three key issues in tumor marker evaluation are utility, magnitude, and reliability. Poorly conceived study designs cloud the issue of how the marker might be used. Reliance on p-values rather than the size of the differences in outcome between patients who are positive and those who are negative for the factor obscures the importance. Technical issues result in poor reproducibility and interpretability of assays. Analytical issues lead to poorly defined cutoff values for marker levels. Poor patient selection leads to difficulty interpreting results because of confounders such as differences in treatment regimens. This review focuses on these issues, with an emphasis on currently accepted tumor markers. Finally, new tumor marker reporting recommendations are discussed, the adoption of which may lead to improved design and publication of tumor marker studies in the future.The Oncologist 07/2006; 11(6):541-52. · 4.10 Impact Factor