Newly identified adipose tissue macrophage populations in obesity with distinct chemokine and chemokine receptor expression.
ABSTRACT Infiltration by macrophages is a hallmark of obesity-related adipose tissue (AT) inflammation that is tightly linked to insulin resistance. Although CD11c+ AT macrophages (ATMs) have recently been shown to promote inflammation in obese mice, the knowledge on phenotype and function of different ATM populations is still very limited. This study aimed at identifying and characterizing ATM populations in obesity.
Isolation of ATM populations defined by CD11c and mannose receptor (MR) expression and analysis of gene expression in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.
Obesity provoked a shift from a predominant MR+CD11c⁻ population ('MR-ATM') to two MR⁻ populations, namely MR⁻CD11c+ ('CD11c-ATM') and MR⁻CD11c⁻ (double negative, 'DN-ATM'). Although CD11c-ATMs were of a clear inflammatory M1 phenotype, DN-ATMs expressed few inflammatory mediators and highly expressed genes for alternative activation (M2) markers involved in tissue repair, such as arginase and YM1. In contrast, MR-ATMs marginally expressed M1 and M2 markers but highly expressed chemokines, including Mcp-1 (Ccl2) and Mcp-3 (Ccl7). Both CD11c-ATMs and DN-ATMs, but not MR-ATM, highly expressed a panel of chemokine receptors (namely Ccr2, Ccr5, Ccr3 and Cx3cr1), whereas the expression of Ccr7 and Ccr9 was selective for CD11c-ATMs and DN-ATMs, respectively. Notably, stressed adipocytes upregulated various chemokines capable of attracting CD11c-ATM and DN-ATM.
This study identifies a novel ATM population with a putatively beneficial role in AT inflammation. This DN-ATM population could be attracted to the obese AT by similar chemokines such as inflammatory CD11c-ATM, on which only Ccr7 is uniquely expressed.
Article: Increased gut permeability and microbiota change associate with mesenteric fat inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We investigated the relationship between gut health, visceral fat dysfunction and metabolic disorders in diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed control or high saturated fat diet (HFD). Circulating glucose, insulin and inflammatory markers were measured. Proximal colon barrier function was assessed by measuring transepithelial resistance and mRNA expression of tight-junction proteins. Gut microbiota profile was determined by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA levels were measured in proximal colon, adipose tissue and liver using RT-qPCR. Adipose macrophage infiltration (F4/80⁺) was assessed using immunohistochemical staining. HFD mice had a higher insulin/glucose ratio (P = 0.020) and serum levels of serum amyloid A3 (131%; P = 0.008) but reduced circulating adiponectin (64%; P = 0.011). In proximal colon of HFD mice compared to mice fed the control diet, transepithelial resistance and mRNA expression of zona occludens 1 were reduced by 38% (P<0.001) and 40% (P = 0.025) respectively and TNF-α mRNA level was 6.6-fold higher (P = 0.037). HFD reduced Lactobacillus (75%; P<0.001) but increased Oscillibacter (279%; P = 0.004) in fecal microbiota. Correlations were found between abundances of Lactobacillus (r = 0.52; P = 0.013) and Oscillibacter (r = -0.55; P = 0.007) with transepithelial resistance of the proximal colon. HFD increased macrophage infiltration (58%; P = 0.020), TNF-α (2.5-fold, P<0.001) and IL-6 mRNA levels (2.5-fold; P = 0.008) in mesenteric fat. Increased macrophage infiltration in epididymal fat was also observed with HFD feeding (71%; P = 0.006) but neither TNF-α nor IL-6 was altered. Perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissue showed no signs of inflammation in HFD mice. The current results implicate gut dysfunction, and attendant inflammation of contiguous adipose, as salient features of the metabolic dysregulation of diet-induced obesity.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e34233. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Insights into the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in obesity and insulin resistance.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has emerged as a state of chronic low-grade inflammation characterised by a progressive infiltration of immune cells, particularly macrophages, into obese adipose tissue. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) present immense plasticity. In early obesity, M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages acquire an M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β produced by M1 ATM exacerbate local inflammation promoting insulin resistance (IR), which consequently, can lead to type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the triggers responsible for ATM recruitment and activation are not fully understood. Adipose tissue-derived chemokines are significant players in driving ATM recruitment during obesity. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a chemokine-like inflammatory regulator, is enhanced during obesity and is directly associated with the degree of peripheral IR. This review focuses on the functional role of macrophages in obesity-induced IR and highlights the importance of the unique inflammatory cytokine MIF in propagating obesity-induced inflammation and IR. Given MIF chemotactic properties, MIF may be a primary candidate promoting ATM recruitment during obesity. Manipulating MIF inflammatory activities in obesity, using pharmacological agents or functional foods, may be therapeutically beneficial for the treatment and prevention of obesity-related metabolic diseases.Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 08/2012; 71(4):622-33. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Leukocyte infiltration of adipose is a critical determinant of obesity-related metabolic diseases. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor (CX3CR1) comprise a chemokine system involved in leukocyte recruitment and adhesion in atherosclerosis, but its role in adipose inflammation and type 2 diabetes is unknown. CX3CL1 mRNA and protein were quantified in subcutaneous adipose and blood during experimental human endotoxemia and in lean and obese human adipose. CX3CL1 cellular source was probed in human adipocytes, monocytes, and macrophages, and CX3CL1-blocking antibodies were used to assess its role in monocyte-adipocyte adhesion. The association of genetic variation in CX3CR1 with metabolic traits was determined in a community-based sample. Finally, plasma CX3CL1 levels were measured in a case-control study of type 2 diabetes. Endotoxemia induced adipose CX3CL1 mRNA (32.7-fold, P < 1 × 10(-5)) and protein (43-fold, P = 0.006). Obese subjects had higher CX3CL1 levels in subcutaneous adipose compared with lean (0.420 ± 0.387 vs. 0.228 ± 0.187 ng/mL, P = 0.04). CX3CL1 was expressed and secreted by human adipocytes and stromal vascular cells. Inflammatory cytokine induction of CX3CL1 in human adipocytes (27.5-fold mRNA and threefold protein) was completely attenuated by pretreatment with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist. A putative functional nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (rs3732378) in CX3CR1 was associated with adipose and metabolic traits, and plasma CX3CL1 levels were increased in patients with type 2 diabetes vs. nondiabetics (0.506 ± 0.262 vs. 0.422 ± 0.210 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). CX3CL1-CX3CR1 is a novel inflammatory adipose chemokine system that modulates monocyte adhesion to adipocytes and is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. These data provide support for CX3CL1 as a diagnostic and therapeutic target in cardiometabolic disease.Diabetes 05/2011; 60(5):1512-8. · 8.29 Impact Factor