Setbacks in Blood Substitutes Research and Development: A Biochemical Perspective
ABSTRACT Recent setbacks in using Hb-based technology to develop oxygen carriers or blood substitutes may spur new and fundamentally different approaches for the development of a new generation of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). This article briefly details some underlying mechanisms that may have been responsible for the adverse-event profile associated with HBOCs, with a focus on the contribution of the author's laboratory toward identifying some of these biochemical pathways and some ways and means to control them. It is hoped that this will aid in the development of a safe and effective second generation of HBOCs.
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ABSTRACT: Blood is a liquid tissue in which dissolved with abundant chemical factors and millions of different cells The reduction of unwanted side effects, especially diseases that emerge through blood such as HIV and hepatitis, has a significant role for modern medicine of transfusion and transplantation. The issues and costs of human blood collection and storage, direct this procedure towards the use of alternatives blood. Two important research fields of this area were oxygen carriers based on hemoglobin and perfluoro chemicals. While they do not have the same quality as the blood cell products, the oxygen carrier solutions have potential clinical and non-clinical applications. The result showed that these products can reach to the body tissues easier than normal red blood cells, and can control the oxygen directly. The final aim of transfusion is to establish a transfusion system with no side effects, and the fact that oxygen carrier artificial blood has this property. The article attempts to step towards solving some problems of blood transfusion through describing the properties of artificial blood alternatives.04/2014; 4(2):72-7.
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ABSTRACT: The clinical practice of blood transfusion has changed considerably over the last few decades. The potential risk of transfusion transmissible diseases has directed efforts towards the production of safe and high quality blood. All transfusion services now operate in an environment of ever-increasing regulatory controls encompassing all aspects of blood collection, processing and storage. Stringent donor selection, identification of pathogens that can be transmitted through blood, and development of technologies that can enhance the quality of blood, have all led to a substantial reduction in potential risks and complications associated with blood transfusion. In this article, we will discuss the current standards required for the manufacture of blood, starting from blood collection, through processing and on to storage. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.Anaesthesia 03/2015; 70 Suppl 1(3):3-e2. DOI:10.1111/anae.12912 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: At least a third of the blood supply in the world is used to transfuse 1-2 units of packed red blood cells for each intervention and most clinical trials of blood substitutes have been carried out at this level of oxygen carrying capacity (OCC) restoration. However, the increase of oxygenation achieved is marginal or none at all for molecular hemoglobin (Hb) products, due to their lingering vasoactivity. This has provided the impetus for the development of "oxygen therapeutics" using Hb-based molecules that have high oxygen affinity and target delivery of oxygen to anoxic areas. However it is still unclear how these oxygen carriers counteract or mitigate the functional effects of anemia due to obstruction, vasoconstriction and under-perfusion. Indeed, they are administered as a low dosage/low volume therapeutic Hb (subsequently further diluted in the circulatory pool) and hence induce extremely small OCC changes. Hyperviscous plasma expanders provide an alternative to oxygen therapeutics by increasing the oxygen delivery capacity (ODC); in anemia they induce supra-perfusion and increase tissue perfusion (flow) by as much as 50%. Polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb) accomplishes this by enhancing the shear thinning behavior of diluted blood, which increases microvascular endothelial shear stress, causes vasodilation and lowering peripheral vascular resistance thus facilitating cardiac function. Induction of supra-perfusion takes advantage of the fact that ODC is the product of OCC and blood flow and hence can be maintained by increasing either or both. Animal studies suggest that this approach may save a considerable fraction of the blood supply. It has an additional benefit of enhancing tissue clearance of toxic metabolites.12/2014; 5(4):232-45. DOI:10.3390/jfb5040232