[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reports in basic and clinical immunology in 2010 reflected the use of state-of-the-art genetic and immunologic tools to characterize the pathogenesis of immunologic diseases and the development of novel therapies directed to these conditions. B-cell biology has been explained in greater detail, significantly with lessons from the genetic defects found in the humoral immunodeficiencies. Therapeutic mAbs are given for an increasing number of indications, such as anti-CD20 antibodies or rituximab, which was initially developed for non-Hodgkin lymphomas and is currently used in diverse autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. The report of an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in Massachusetts detected by means of newborn screening and successfully treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation validated recent efforts toward newborn screening for SCID. Improvement of survival outcomes for patients with primary immunodeficiencies treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was demonstrated in a large European cohort, with significant appreciation of the type of donor graft, particularly the use of HLA-matched unrelated donors for patients with non-SCID. Progress in cellular mechanisms of drug hypersensitivity included the characterization of nitroso-modified drug metabolites as potent T-cell activators and the identification of the relocation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells from blood to skin as a potential risk factor for reactivation of viral disease.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 02/2011; 127(2):336-41. · 9.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main obstacle to elucidating the role of CD4(+) T cells in allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) has been the absence of an adequately sensitive approach to directly characterize rare allergen-specific T cells without introducing substantial phenotypic modifications by means of in vitro amplification.
We sought to monitor, in physiological conditions, the allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells generated during natural pollen exposure and during allergy vaccination.
Alder pollen allergy was used as a model for studying seasonal allergies. Allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells were tracked and characterized in 12 subjects with alder pollen allergy, 6 nonallergic subjects, and 9 allergy vaccine-treated subjects by using peptide-MHC class II tetramers.
Allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells were detected in all of the subjects with alder pollen allergy and nonallergic subjects tested. Pathogenic responses--chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on T(H)2 lymphocytes (CRTH2) expression and T(H)2 cytokine production--are specifically associated with terminally differentiated (CD27(-)) allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells, which dominate in allergic subjects but are absent in nonallergic subjects. In contrast, CD27(+) allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells are present at low frequencies in both allergic and nonallergic subjects and reflect classical features of the protective immune response with high expression of IL-10 and IFN-γ. Restoration of a protective response during SIT appears to be due to the preferential deletion of pathogenic (CD27(-)) allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells accompanied by IL-10 induction in surviving CD27(+) allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells.
Differentiation stage divides allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells into 2 distinct subpopulations with unique functional properties and different fates during SIT.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 02/2012; 129(2):544-51, 551.e1-7. · 9.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effective immunotherapy for peanut allergy is hampered by a lack of understanding of peanut-reactive CD4(+) T cells.
To identify, characterize, and track Ara h 1-reactive cells in subjects with peanut allergy by using Ara h 1-specific class II tetramers.
Tetramer-guided epitope mapping was used to identify the antigenic peptides within the peanut allergen Ara h 1. Subsequently, HLA class II/Ara h 1-specific tetramers were used to determine the frequency and phenotype of Ara h 1-reactive T cells in subjects with peanut allergy. Cytokine profiles of Ara h 1-reactive T cells were also determined.
Multiple Ara h 1 epitopes with defined HLA restriction were identified. Ara h 1-specific CD4(+) T cells were detected in all of the subjects with peanut allergy tested. Ara h 1-reactive T cells in subjects with allergy expressed CCR4 but did not express CRTH2. The percentage of Ara h1-reactive cells that expressed the β7 integrin was low compared with total CD4(+) T cells. Ara h 1- reactive cells that secreted IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-17 were detected.
In individuals with peanut allergy, Ara h 1-reactive T cells occurred at moderate frequencies, were predominantly CCR4(+) memory cells, and produced IL-4. Class II tetramers can be readily used to detect Ara h 1-reactive T cells in the peripheral blood of subjects with peanut allergy without in vitro expansion and would be effective for tracking peanut-reactive CD4(+) T cells during immunotherapy.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 04/2011; 127(5):1211-8.e3. · 9.17 Impact Factor
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