Patients' perceptions of orthognathic treatment, well-being, and psychological or psychiatric status: a systematic review
ABSTRACT To conduct a systematic review of studies concerning the psychosocial well-being of surgical-orthodontic patients.
Articles published between 2001 and 2009 were searched using PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycInfo. Only articles written in English were included. Articles on methodological issues or on patients with clefts or syndromes or studies in which treatment had included surgically assisted maxillary expansion or intermaxillary fixation were excluded. The exclusion of articles was carried out in collaboration with two reviewers. To find new relevant articles, references from all the obtained review articles were hand-searched. Thirty-five articles fulfilled the selection criteria and were included in this review.
The main motives for seeking treatment were improvements in self-confidence, appearance, and oral function. Patients were not found to suffer from psychiatric problems. Treatment resulted in self-reported improvements in well-being, even though these improvements were not found with current assessment methods. Changes in well-being were most often registered using measures designed for evaluation of the impact of oral health on quality of life (e.g. the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Oral Health Impact Profile).
Surgical-orthodontic patients do not experience psychiatric problems related to their dentofacial disharmony in general. However, subgroups of patients may still experience problems, such as anxiety or depression, as many studies only report patients' mean problem scores and compare them to controls' scores or population norms. New assessment methods focusing on day-to-day changes in mood and well-being, as well as prospective studies with controls, are needed.
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ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to determine reasons for orthodontic-surgical treatment, to quantify the perceptions of possible improvement 10 to 14 years after treatment, and to assess factors that affect treatment satisfaction and socio-dental impacts on quality of life. The participation rate was 36 of 78 patients; their mean age was 45.7 years (SD, 10.7 years; range, 29-62 years). The presurgical anatomic occlusions were measured on dental casts. Visual analog scales allowed the participants to rate their perceived treatment outcome on 7 oral health-related items. A 3-point scale rated satisfaction with orthodontic-surgical treatment. The oral impact of daily performances index was included to assess socio-dental impacts on quality of life. Most responders reported improvements on the 7 items. The most significant change was reported for chewing. "Very satisfied" with the treatment was reported by 13 responders; 19 of 36 persons were "reasonably satisfied." Reporting "very satisfied with treatment" was 8 times more likely when peers had noticed a changed in the participant's appearance after surgery. Sex was significantly associated with quality of life. The most frequently reported reason for treatment was to improve chewing, and the item that showed the most pronounced improvement was also chewing. Most responders were only reasonably satisfied with the treatment. Whether peers noticed a change in appearance after treatment was a significant factor affecting both treatment satisfaction and reporting a good quality of life.American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 02/2012; 141(2):204-12. DOI:10.1016/j.ajodo.2011.06.039 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Satisfaction with the outcome of orthognathic treatment is generally high; however, an important minority remains dissatisfied with the results. The reasons for this could be inadequate patient understanding and preparation, external motivation, and unrealistic expectations. In-depth appreciation of these issues can be obtained using qualitative research methods, but there is a paucity of qualitative research in this field. This was a cross-sectional qualitative study of orthognathic patients conducted at a teaching hospital. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 prospective orthognathic patients. The data were managed by using the framework approach and analyzed by using the critical qualitative theory. Two main themes were explored in the interviews: the impact of the dentofacial deformity and the motivation for treatment. Both the everyday problems of living with a dentofacial deformity and the motivation for seeking treatment could be classified either as exclusively practical (including functional and structural), exclusively psychological (including psychosocial and esthetic), or a combination. Different coping strategies were also described. The sources of motivation ranged between purely external to purely internal, with most subjects between these 2 extremes. In this article, we present a classification of the impact of dentofacial deformity that is a refinement of the traditional one that includes esthetic, functional, and psychosocial factors. The motivating factors, together with the triggers for accessing treatment and the source of motivation, are generally linked directly or indirectly to the problem and the impact of the condition. However, in a few patients, the motivation might not relate to the impact of the problem but to a complex array of other factors such as personality, upbringing, and relationships. Therefore, clinicians should not make assumptions but explore these factors on an individual basis without preconceived ideas.American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 06/2012; 141(6):734-42. DOI:10.1016/j.ajodo.2011.12.026 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this paper we propose to study the role of psychosocial variables in affect in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, considering that affect is a key variable in treatment adherence. Seventy-four patients (average age 33,24±10,56) with metal multibracket-fixed orthodontic treatment were included. Patients were assessed twice. The first stage, at the beginning of treatment, included assessment of dental impact (Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire), trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), self-esteem (Rosenberg's self-esteem scale), and self-efficacy (General Self-efficacy Scale). In the second stage, 6 months later, positive and negative affect towards treatment was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Dental social impact differentiates between patients with high and low negative affect, while self-efficacy differentiates between patients with high and low positive affect. Trait anxiety and self-esteem differentiate between both types of affect (positive and negative). Trait anxiety and self-esteem (when trait anxiety weight is controlled) are significant predictor variables of affective balance. These results have important practical implications, because it seems essential to adopt a bio-psychosocial model incorporating assessment methods focusing on day-to-day changes in mood and well-being.The European Journal of Orthodontics 02/2013; DOI:10.1093/ejo/cjt007 · 1.39 Impact Factor