High incidence of false-positive Aspergillus galactomannan test in multiple myeloma.

American Journal of Hematology (Impact Factor: 4). 06/2010; 85(6):449-51. DOI: 10.1002/ajh.21697
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), mainly due to the difficulty in its early diagnosis. Monitoring of galactomannan (GM) antigen, an exoantigen of Aspergillus, in the blood by sandwich ELISA is a useful and noninvasive method for early diagnosis of IA. The GM test has a sensitivity of 67-100% with a specificity of 81-99% in neutropenic patients and allogeneic transplant recipients [1-3]. Although it has been widely used as a diagnostic criterion for IA [4,5], one of the major limitations of this assay is false-positivity, particularly in pediatric patients [1], patients with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) [6,7], and those taking dietary GM [8,9] or fungus-derived antibiotics, such as piperacillin-tazobactam (PIPC/TAZ) [10-12].

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    ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis for patients with high risk of infection is based on the monitoring of Aspergillus antigenemia assessed by the detection of galactomannan in serum by a sandwich-type ELISA (Biorad(®)). The validation of the method was displayed according to the guide COFRAC SH GTA 04. The internal quality control system settled, involves two quality control samples made of pools of sera (negative and positive). The repeatability of the measurements, as estimated by the coefficients of variation (CV), obtained by two different technicians was found from 9 to 13.7% for the positive control. The CV of the negative control, for which the provider indicates it is not useful in the analytical process, was found from 7.1 to 30%. In our experience it could be an indicator of environmental contamination. The evaluation of the intermediary fidelity was 15.7% for the positive control and 22.5% for the negative one. In the lack of reference material (International Standard) and recommendation from scientific societies, performances obtained will be discussed according to the results reported in the technical form of the supplier and those obtained by 39 laboratories participating in the only available external quality assessment program organized in France by ProBioQual(®) where the CV of reproducibility are 44.7% of unit (mean index 0.131) for the negative control and 18% (mean index 1.089) for the positive one in 2011.
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a leading cause of mortality in acute leukemia and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To determine the yield of galactomannan (GM) assay for the diagnosis of probable IA, its temporal relationship with the computed tomography (CT) scans and correlation with mortality in AL and HSCT. Consecutive neutropenic episodes (n=150) among inpatients aged ≥15 years with AL or recipients of HSCT were prospectively evaluated over 1½ years. All patients underwent weekly serum GM assay and optical density index >0.5 for ≥2 samples was defined as positive. IA was diagnosed according to EORTC 2008 guidelines. Of the 150 episodes enrolled, 43 (28.7%) were diagnosed with IA: possible 25 (16.7%), probable 17 (11.3%) and proven 1 (0.7%). The yield of GM assay in diagnosing probable IA was 17/42 (40.5%). In 88.2% of probable IA episodes, GM was positive before high-resolution CT at a median of 10 days (range 1-16). In the episodes with ≥2 samples tested, fatality was higher in those ≥2 values positive for GM, compared to the rest (31% vs. 13.2%, odd ratio 2.96, 95% CI 1.09-8.00; P=0.04). In AL and HSCT, GM assay could identify patients with probable IA earlier than CT chest and also predicted a higher risk of death.
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive fungal disease is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in hematologic malignancy patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Timely recognition and treatment of invasive fungal diseases in these patients are essential and decrease mortality. However, conventional definitive diagnostic methods are difficult and time consuming. While conventional microbiological and histopathological methods are still needed for a definitive diagnosis of invasive fungal disease, new noninvasive diagnostic methods including serologic and molecular biomarkers are now available. These new diagnostic methods facilitate an early diagnosis of invasive fungal disease and allow for utilization of a pre-emptive treatment approach, which may ultimately lead to improved treatment outcomes and reduced toxicity.
    Expert Review of Hematology 12/2012; 5(6):661-669. · 2.38 Impact Factor

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