The galactocerebrosidase enzyme contributes to the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic stem cell niche
ABSTRACT The balance between survival and death in many cell types is regulated by small changes in the intracellular content of bioactive sphingolipids. Enzymes that either produce or degrade these sphingolipids control this equilibrium. The findings here described indicate that the lysosomal galactocerebrosidase (GALC) enzyme, defective in globoid cell leukodystrophy, is involved in the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) niche by contributing to the control of the intracellular content of key sphingolipids. Indeed, we show that both insufficient and supraphysiologic GALC activity-by inherited genetic deficiency or forced gene expression in patients' cells and in the disease model-induce alterations of the intracellular content of the bioactive GALC downstream products ceramide and sphingosine, and thus affect HSPC survival and function and the functionality of the stem cell niche. Therefore, GALC and, possibly, other enzymes for the maintenance of niche functionality and health tightly control the concentration of these sphingolipids within HSPCs.
- SourceAvailable from: Salman B. HosainTrends in Stem Cell Proliferation and Cancer Research, Edited by Resende, Rodrigo; Ulrich, Henning, chapter The role of sphingolipids in modulating pluripotency of stem cells; Springer., ISBN: 978-94-007-6210-7
Article: Gene therapy for leukodystrophies.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Leukodystrophies (LDs) refer to a group on inherited diseases in which molecular abnormalities of glial cells are responsible for exclusive or predominant defects in myelin formation and/or maintenance within the central and, sometimes, the peripheral nervous system. For three of them [X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), metachromatic (MLD) and globoid cell LDs], a gene therapy strategy aiming at transferring the disease gene into autologous hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) using lentiviral vectors has been developed and has already entered into the clinics for X-ALD and MLD. Long-term follow-up has shown that HSCs gene therapy can arrest the devastating progression of X-ALD. Brain gene therapy relying upon intracerebral injections of adeno-associated vectors is also envisaged for MLD. The development of new gene therapy viral vectors allowing targeting of the disease gene into oligodendrocytes or astrocytes should soon benefit other forms of LDs.Human Molecular Genetics 03/2011; 20(R1):R42-53. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddr142 · 6.68 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Blood cell production is maintained by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that reside in specialized niches within bone marrow. Treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) causes HSC egress from bone marrow niches and trafficking to the peripheral blood, a process termed 'mobilization'. Although the mobilization phenomenon has been known for some time and is utilized clinically to acquire HSC for transplant, the mechanisms mediating HSC release are not completely understood. We discuss recent advances and controversies in defining the mechanisms responsible for G-CSF-induced mobilization. New reports define a role for resident monocytes/macrophages in maintaining niche cells, which is diminished after G-CSF treatment, suggesting a new mechanism for mobilization. Although osteoblasts have been reported to be a primary component of the HSC niche, new results suggest a unique niche composed of innervated mesenchymal stem cells. Modulating bioactive lipid signaling also facilitates mobilization, and may define a future therapeutic strategy. Hematopoietic mobilization by G-CSF is primarily mediated by alterations to the bone marrow niche by both direct and indirect mechanisms, rather than directly altering HSC function. Further understanding of the processes mediating mobilization will advance our understanding on the cellular and molecular components of the HSC niche.Current opinion in hematology 07/2011; 18(4):231-8. DOI:10.1097/MOH.0b013e3283477962 · 4.05 Impact Factor