Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome with posterior leucoencephalopathy after oral contraceptive pills.
ABSTRACT Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by sudden-onset recurrent 'thunderclap' headaches with reversible multifocal narrowing of the cerebral arteries, often associated with focal neurological deficits from ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. It has been associated with exposure to vasoconstrictive drugs, pregnancy, migraine, and a variety of other conditions. Whereas the pathophysiology of RCVS remains unclear, changes in the levels of female hormones are considered important because RCVS predominantly affects women and is frequently associated with pregnancy. We report a patient with angiographically confirmed RCVS whose MRI showed reversible brain oedema, suggesting an overlap between RCVS and the reversible posterior leucoencephalopathy syndrome. The only identified risk factor was oral contraceptive pills started 1 month prior to onset, supporting a role for female reproductive hormones in precipitating this overlap syndrome.
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ABSTRACT: Recurrent thunderclap headaches, seizures, strokes, and non-aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage can all reveal reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. This increasingly recognised syndrome is characterised by severe headaches, with or without other symptoms, and segmental constriction of cerebral arteries that resolves within 3 months. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is supposedly due to a transient disturbance in the control of cerebrovascular tone. More than half the cases occur post partum or after exposure to adrenergic or serotonergic drugs. Manifestations have a uniphasic course, and vary from pure cephalalgic forms to rare catastrophic forms associated with several haemorrhagic and ischaemic strokes, brain oedema, and death. Diagnosis can be hampered by the dynamic nature of clinicoradiological features. Stroke can occur a few days after initial normal imaging, and cerebral vasoconstriction is at a maximum on angiograms 2-3 weeks after clinical onset. The calcium channel blocker nimodipine seems to reduce thunderclap headaches within 48 h of administration, but has no proven effect on haemorrhagic and ischaemic complications.The Lancet Neurology 10/2012; 11(10):906-17. · 23.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on the association between migraine and the risk of developing hemorrhagic stroke (HS) have generated inconsistent results. The aim of the present population-based, age- and sex- matched follow-up study was to investigate whether migraine is associated with an increased risk of HS. METHOD: A total of 20925 persons with at least two ambulatory visits in 2001 with the principal diagnosis of migraine were enrolled in the migraine group. The non-migraine group consisted of 104625, age- and sex- matched, randomly sampled subjects without migraine. The two-year HS-free survival rates for these 2 groups were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of migraine on the occurrence of HS. RESULTS: During the 2 year follow-up, 113 subjects in the migraine group (0.54%) and 255 in the non-migraine group (0.24%) developed HS. The crude hazard ratio (HR) for developing HS in the migraine group was 2.22 compared to the non-migraine group (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78-2.77, p<0.0001) and the adjusted HR was 2.13 (95% CI: 1.71-2.67, p<0.0001) after controlling for demographic characteristics and comorbid medical disorders. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based age- and sex- matched cohort study shows that migraine was linked to an increased risk of HS.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e55253. · 3.53 Impact Factor
- Journal of Neurology 05/2011; 258(11):2080-2. · 3.58 Impact Factor